UMD NFLC Hausa Lessons/119 Tsimi da Tanadi

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Overview

  1. Lesson Title: Trades: Savings
  2. This is an analysis of the Nigerian socioeconomic development from an expert's point of view.
  3. Language: Hausa
  4. Topic: Economics/Politics
  5. ILR Level: 2+/3
  6. ACTFL Proficiency: Superior, Advanced-High
  7. This ACTFL rating is an approximation based on the ILR level
  8. Modality: Reading
  9. Learning Objective: Maintenance & Improvement
  10. Subject Area: Language
  11. Material Type: LO
  12. Publication Year: 2007
  13. ObjectID: HAUS_12025

Transcript


Original Translation

Tsimi da tanadi dabaru ne da ke ba da tallafi wajen biyan buƙatun ɗan Adam a wajen gudanar da harkokin rayuwa; ɗaiɗaiku ne, ko cincirindon jama a garuruwa da ƙasashe?

Hanya ce ta samarwa da kuma sarrafa dukiya, sannan ɗaiɗaikun mutane kan yi ayyuka iri dabam-daban don neman abin da za su kai bakin salati, su tufatar da kawunansu, su kuma nemi matsugunni ga kawunansu da duk wanda nauyinsa ya rataya a kansu

(kamar ’ya’ya a cikin tsarin zaman iyali).

Shi ya sa za a ga wani manomi ne,

wani ɗan kasuwa ne, wani malami ne, likita da dai makamantansu. Waɗannan su ne dubarun da ɗaiɗaikun mutane kan bi don kyautata rayuwarsu da wanda ya rataya a garesu.

A wani yanayi irin waɗannan aikace-aikace da ɗaiɗaikun mutane ke gudanarwa su ke bunƙasa tattalin arzikin ƙasa. Domin sai manomi ya yi noma za a samu abin da za a ci a ƙasa har ma a samu na fitarwa zuwa kasuwannin ƙasashen waje. Hukumar ƙasa na samun alfanu a irin wannan yanayi.

Haka kuma sai malami ya koyar da ɗalibai za a samu waɗanda za su girma su cike guraben ayyuka a matakai na hukuma da kamfanoni masu zaman kansu; kun ga ke nan tun daga shugaban ƙasa zuwa mai kwasar shara sun taɓa halartar wata makaranta a matsayin ɗalibai ƙarƙashin koyarwar wasu malamai - wanda a yau ya zama sanadiyyar da suka samu kansu a inda suke.

Amma idan aka yi magana a matakin ƙasa

za a iya yin nazari ne a kan yadda hukumar ƙasa ta ke sarrafa dukiyar ƙasa don bunƙasa tattalin arziki. Wannan tattalin arzikin ƙasa da ake ta ce-ce kuce akai hukuma tana samar da shi ne ta hanyar haraji da ta ke karɓa daga albarkatun ƙasa daga kayan gona ko ma’adanai da akan haƙo a ƙasa ko a tsamo a ruwa.

Wani abin dubawa nan shi ne, mutane da dama a wannan ƙasa ta mu Nijeriya ba su fahimci dabaru na zamani ba don yaƙi da fatara da talauci a tsakan kanin al’umma. Ya kamata a ce mafi yawa daga cikin ’yan kasuwar mu sun san yadda ake kakkafa masana’antu; yadda za su rinƙa hulɗa da bankuna;

da kamfanonin inshora da makamantansu. Hada-hadar saye ko saka jari a kamfanonin gwamnati da masu zaman kansu. Idan har aka cimma irin wannan manufa, arzikin ɗaiɗaikun mutane zai inganta kuma zai tallafa wajen bunƙasa tattalin arzikin ƙasa.

A kodayaushe masana’antu su ke ba da ayyukan yi ga jama’a, ko kuma su sanya masu masana’antun

su zama masu dogaro da kai.

Abubuwan lura ga masu son kakkafa masana’antu

Ya kamata duk mai son kafa masana’anta ya bijiro da burinsa, da buƙatu don cimma wata manufa

wajen saka jari ko kafa masana’anta.

Wannan shi ne babban tubalin gina harkokin kasuwanci ingantacce, kuma mai ɗorewa da zai kai ga nasara. Mutum ya san me yake so ya cimmawa kuma wacce hanya zai bi?

Dubarun kasuwanci

Duk mai son kafa manya da ƙananan masana’antu, ya kamata ya fahimci dubarun kasuwanci na zamani.

Lallai ya gudanar da bincike kan yadda zai tallata hajjarsa da kuma yadda za ta samu shiga ko da akwai kayayyaki makamantanta a kasuwa. Idan haja ta samu karɓuwa duk da cewa akwai irinta a kasuwa da suke gogayya kafaɗa da kafaɗa wajen saye da sayarwa, to sai ɗan kasuwa ya tsara dubarun kasuwancinsa ta yadda kayansa za su zama ana matuƙar buƙatarsu ga masu saye da sayarwa.

Horo

Shawara a nan, musamman Ga

matasa ko waɗanda suka kammala karatunsu, idan har burinsu shi ne kafa ƙananan masana’antu, to ya zama wajibi su sami horo. Horon nan kuwa, ana iya gudanar da shi a babbar masana’anta, ko kuma a nemi wani ƙwararre da ya tumbatsa a fagen kafa masana’antu. Domin shiga harkokin kasuwanci ba tare da sanin makama ba kamar tafiya ne a makance.

Sannan mai son kafa masana’antu lallai ne ya tsara kasuwanci tare da taimakon masani, ko kuma ƙwararren mai ba da shawara.


Tsarin kafa masana’anta


Wani masani ya faɗa cewa, dubarun da ya koya daga ƙungiyoyin da suke ba da horo akan kakkafa masana’antu sun taimaka masa wajen cike giɓin da ke tsakanin ilimin da ya koya a makaranta, da kuma tsarin yadda ake kula da harkokin kasuwanci.


A dalilin haka, yana da matuƙar mahimmanci ga gwamnati ta ɓullo da kwasa-kwasai da suke koyar da sanin makama wajen kafa masana’antu, manya da ƙanana, a makarantun gaba da sakandire. Ta yadda idan ɗan makaranta ya fito ba sai ya jira hukuma ta ba shi aikin yi ba.


Kuma ƙoƙarin da ake yi wajen nusar da masu yi wa ƙasa hidima kan kakkafa masana’antu da ƙwararru ke gudanarwa a wajen horar da masu yi ma ƙasa hidima abu ne mai alfanu. Lallai ya kamata a ci gaba da gudanar da shi. irin su baduku da tela da ’yan koli za su riƙa ajiya, kuma su nemi rance don inganta sana’o’insu. Bankuna na iya ba da fifiko wajen samar da kayan sana’a, maimakon bayar da zunzurutun kuɗi rance.


Bankuna


Tabbas bankuna suna taka muhimmiyar rawa a zamanance wurin bunƙasar tattalin arziki, na ɗaiɗaikun mutane da ƙasa baki ɗaya. Sai dai a yawancin ƙasashen duniya akwai manya da ƙananan bankuna. To duk da yake an taɓa yi a Nijeriya, ko kuma in ce akwai, ya kamata a ba da dama a kakkafa ƙananan bankuna don tallafi ga masu ƙaramin ƙarfi, wajen ajiya da neman bashi.


Irin waɗannan tsare za su ci nasara ne kawai matuƙar mutane sun samu tarbiyyar tattalin abin hannunsu. Domin an tabbatar da cewa ƙasashen da suka ci gaba musamman ma na turawa ko sharholiya mutum zai aikata sai ya ware mata kuɗinta. Saboda haka akasarin masu busa sigari sun san kara nawa suke zuƙa a kowane wata idan amsu aikin wata-wata ne. Mu kuwa namu ta ci barkatai kusan komai ba tsari. Lallai ya zama wajibi ga hukuma tare da haɗin guiwar kafofin watsa labarai ta fara wayar da kan al’umma akan dabarun tsimi da tanadi.


da zarar al’ummar ƙasar nan, musamman masu ƙaramin ƙarfi sun tasirantu, da dabaru na tsimi da tanadi, tabbas duk wani shiri na kashe karsashin talauci zai iya zama makami wajen yaƙi da fatara da talauci. Shirin kuma ya kamata a ce ya ba da fifiko a ƙauyuka ko dukkan matakan ƙananan hukumomi: daga ƙasa zuwa sama.

Saving and thrift are methods that provide for people’s needs

in running the affairs of life as individuals, or a group of people in towns and countries. It is a way of obtaining and controlling wealth, so that individual people can do different things to find what will allow them to follow their religion, clothe themselves, find homes for themselves, and everything for which they have a responsibility (such as children within the family structure).

This is how you should consider a farmer,

a shopkeeper, 

a teacher, or a doctor and those like them: each has an individual plan that they follow in order to improve their lives and those that depend on them.

In some circumstances, these kinds of activities that individual people engage in are developing the country’s economy. When the farmer tends his farm, there are some things that will do well in the ground, and that can be exported to foreign markets. The country’s authorities are also involved in this kind of arrangement. Likewise, when the teacher teaches students, there will be those who grow up and fill workplaces at various levels of authority and independent companies. You see this all the way from the president to the trash collector, if they have ever attended a school in which students are under the tutelage of teachers – and today this is why they have found themselves wherever they happen to be.

But when one talks about the country’s progress, one can learn how the national authorities control the country’s wealth in order to develop the economy. This national economy depends on the authorities to generate it by means of

taxes that they receive from national resources, from agricultural products or minerals

that are dug up from the ground 

or taken from the water.

Something to look at here is this: quite a few people in this country of ours, Nigeria, don’t understand the modern means of attacking scarcity and poverty amongst the population. It should be noted that most of our shopkeepers do know how to build up a trade, how to undertake transactions with banks and insurance companies and the like and buying arrangements or investment

in independent government agencies. If this kind of goal is extended, the wealth of individual people will strengthen and will support the growth of the national economy.

Whenever businesses provide work to the public, or establish places of employment for them, they make them self-reliant.

Remarks about those who want to build up businesses

Anyone who wants to establish a business must abandon his other ambitions and demands in order to achieve this goal of investing in or establishing a business. This is the key ingredient for building suitable commercial affairs that are long-lasting and will lead to success. Does a person know why he wants to achieve and which route he’ll take?

Commercial planning

Anyone who wants to establish large or small businesses must understand modern commercial planning. Indeed, he should undertake research on how to advertise his goods and how they will gain entry even if there are similar commodities in the market. For the goods to gain acceptance when there are similar goods competing shoulder to shoulder in the marketplace, the market person must adjust his commercial planning so that his goods will become the ones that serve the greatest needs of buyers and sellers.

Training

Here’s some advice, especially for

youths or those who have finished their studies, if their goal is to establish small businesses: it is crucial to get training. With such training, one can run a large business, or even find an expert who knows all about the field of establishing businesses. Because entering into commercial affairs is not about knowing where to grab hold, it’s more like walking blindly.

For those who want to establish businesses, it is essential that they arrange their commerce with the assistance of a knowledgeable person, or an expert who can give advice.


Strategy for establishing a business


A knowledgeable person said that the planning he learned from organizations that give training on establishing businesses helped him to fill the gaps between what he learned in school and a strategy for tending to commercial affairs.


For this reason, it is extremely important for the government to introduce the teaching of how to establish businesses, small and large, in post-secondary schools. This way, when a student graduates he will not just wait for the authorities to give him work.


And the effort to show how to serve the country by establishing businesses, and the experts who provide the training to those who will serve the country in this way, is an auspicious thing. It is essential that it continues to be administered. Those, such as leatherworkers and tailors and petty traders, will keep on saving, and will seek out loans to develop their trades. Banks can give priority to providing tools of the trade, instead of handing out a great deal of loan money.


Banks


Banks certainly have an important role to play for developing the economy and for individual people around the country as well. And in most countries of the world, there are both large and small banks. Well, all this has been done in Nigeria, and I would say there are several, but we must take the opportunity to establish more small banks in order to help the powerless to save and seek credit.


These kinds of arrangements will be successful only as long as people become educated on taking care of of their affairs. Certainly, in the countries that have advanced the most, especially the European ones, and even if a person lives for the moment, he will work until he allocates money to it. In this way, most smokers know how many cigarettes they inhale each month if they get monthly work. We, on our own, tend to get disorganized about nearly everything without a plan. So it’s essential that the authorities, with the cooperation of the mass media, begin informing the public about planning for savings and investment.


As soon as the people of this country, especially those without power, make progress in planning for savings and investment, then surely the whole project to defeat poverty will be able to become a weapon in the war on scarcity and poverty. And it must be said that this project should give priority to the rural areas and all measures of the local authorities, from the lowest to the highest.

Glossary

Hausa Hausa Meaning English Meaning
Abin da za su kai bakin salati.. Wannan magana tana iya nufin abin da mutane za su iya anfani da shi domin biyan bukata kuma su yi godiya ga Allah kamar wajen abinci, ko kayan jiki. This expression means that people work various jobs to provide food for their families
Wanda ya rataya a garesu. A nan ana nufin wasu mutane da suke rayuwa tare da ɗaukar nauyin wasu mutane da suke yare da su(ɗan kasuwa, manomi, ...) Any person depending on them for shelter, food, or clothing
Ma'adanai da akan haƙo a ƙasa ko a tsamo a ruwa. Albarkun ƙasa da ba mutun ya yi su ba amma mutun yana anfani da su do ƙera wasu abubuwa ko kuma ci. Natural resources
Kwasa_kwasai da suke... Cikin wannan hali ana nufin dubarori ko hanyoyi daban- daban. In this context, ways or tools that the government should implement to train people
Bankuna suna taka muhimmiyar rawa a zamanance.... Bankuna suna kawo babbar gudunmuwa da hanyoyi na zamani wajen bunƙasar tattalin arziki. Banks play an important role in economic growth with modern realizations
Ci barkatai kusan komai ba tsari Wanna salon magana yana nufin rashin hange nesa wajen sarrafa dukiya ko kuma duk wani abu mai tamani. This is a saying, used in this context to imply a lack of planning or discipline in the management of personal or public wealth

Note

Hausa Note English Note

Nijeriya ƙasa ce mai arzikin man fetur, da wasu albarku na ƙasa; kuma cikin nahiyar Afirka ita ce mafi yawan mutane, amma duk da tana jin daɗin waɗɗanan albarku, akwai matsaloli da take fuskanta kuma, yayinda yawaitar mutane, da rashawa, da tashin hankali suna damuwar zaman lahiya da arziki. Mutane suna ƙaruwa da sauri, ga yawaitar tarzoma a yankin ƙasar na Delta, inda man yake saboda ƴan-gani- kashe- ni da ke cewa suna faɗan talakawa da tsaron kewayen ɗan adam suna kawo tashin hankalin da yana kawo tunanin ci da hakkin ɗan adam ga wasu. Cikin shekaru da sun wuce, Nijeriya ta yi zaman aika abinci a ƙasashen waje, amma yanzu sai ta kawo domin noma bai bada isashen abinci ga jama'ar saboda ana yin shi ba cikin hanyar zamani ba. Hukuma tana ƙoƙari kashe talauci da gyara halin rayuwar jama'a ta wurin tsare tsare na bunƙasa ci gaban ƙasar, kamar wannan tsarin da ake ce da shi da turanci: National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS).

Idan kuna son ƙarin bayyani, ku duba: http://www.economist.com/world/africa/displaystory.cfm?_id9234468 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/econmy_of_Nigeria

Africa’s most populous country, oil-rich Nigeria, has enjoyed years of prosperity from its abundance of natural resources, but it faces challenges as the rapid growing population, violence in the oil region, and corruption influence its socioeconomic growth. Violence in the Delta region from militants claiming to fight for the poor and the environment has also raised some human rights concerns. The country that used to export food has to import it because the subsistence agriculture, using old methods, cannot keep up with a growing population. In their effort to tackle poverty and raise the standard of living, authorities are attempting reforms in different sectors, with institutions like the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS).



<activity>
   <problemset>
      <problem correctindex="1">
         <choices>
            <opt>
               <eng-response>This analysis addresses an expert’s perception of the Nigerian economy and the different structures that generate it. In a series of actions necessary for social and financial development, he reiterates the need for the population to understand the mechanism of a modern economy, and the importance of savings in order to fight poverty. He sees a lack of information as the key problem of Nigerian businessmen who, according to him, must seek advice from experts before engaging in any business because success depends on a process that they must follow. In addition to that understanding, he mentions the interdependence between financial institutions, companies, and people of all professions, and the necessity for them to work together to support families and businesses.</eng-response>
               <response>Wannan nazari ne da wani gwani ya yi, inda yake nuna ra'ayinshi kan zaman tattalin arziki ƙasar Nijeriya, da kuma masu tafiyar da shi. Ya bada hanyoyi da ya kamata a bi domin tabbatar da ci gabar jama'a da arzikin ƙasa, cikin misalai daban-daban na yadda zamani yake tafiya bisa ga fannonin dabarun tsimi da tanadi, yana  nanata muhimmancin fahimtar jama'a da ire-iren dubarun don a yaƙi fatara da talauci. Yana ganin rashin sani shi ne babbar matsalar ƴan kasuwar Nijeriya, waɗanda a cewar shi, wajibi ne su sami horo daga gwanaye, kafin su kafa masana'anta saboda nasararta ta danganta da bin wasu ƙa'idodin kasuwanci da ya cancanta su bi. ƙari ga fahimtar, ya nuna hulɗa tsakanin masu harakar kuɗi, da kamfanoni, da masu sana'oi daban-daban da yadda ya kamata suyi  aiki tare don tanadin iyalai da hajoji.</response>
               <eng-fdbk>Incorrect! This choice is not correct because some important ideas developed by the author to reinforce the topic are left out. Please read his comments about setting up a business. What parts of the text could complete this summary?</eng-fdbk>
               <fdbk>Ba daidai ba! Wannan zabe ba daidai ba ne saboda akwai muhimman bayyanai da ke ƙarfafa manufar nazarin, amma ba a sa su ba cikin taƙaitarwar. Ku ƙara karanta sharhin mai rubutun bisa kafa masana'anta. Waɗɗane ɓangarorin nazari ke iya cika taƙaitarwar?</fdbk>
            </opt>
            <opt>
               <eng-response>The main point of this analysis is that fighting poverty in Nigeria should involve the government as well as educators, individuals, investors, professionals, and financial institutions, in informative and complementary activities that not only create employment, but also modernize and fuel the economy. The expert explains that public funds are generated by the working class, businesses, taxes, and natural resources. Therefore, investors should be trained to establish modern business plans from start-up to viability. Additionally, school programs after the secondary level and companies as well should include management courses to encourage the private sector. Also, small banks should be added to existing ones and include informal education to promote small business ventures. He asserts that the concept of planning should be taught to Nigerians through the media.</eng-response>
               <response>Babbar manufar wannan nazarin shi ne, yaƙi da talauci, aiki ne da ya haɗa da sa hannun  gwamnati, da masu horo, da ɗaiɗaikun mutane, masu saka jari,da masu sana'a, da masu hada-hadar kuɗi ta hanyoyi na horo da taimakon juna, waɗanda ba kawo aiki kaɗai za su yi ba, amma har da bunƙasa tattalin arzikin ƙasa. Shi gwanin ya kwatamta yadda dukiyar  ƙasar tana fitowa daga ma'aikata, masana' antu, haraji, da kuma irin albarkatu na ƙasa ne, domin haka, ya cancanta masu saka jari su sami horo bisa tsarin zamani na kasuwanci daga farko zuwa rayadda sana'ar; makarantune da masana'antu su yi horo bisa sarrafawar kasuwanci domin ƙarfafa ƴan kasuwa masu zaman kansu,  ƙananan bankuna kuma su yaɗu domin a tallafi ƙananan ƴan kasuwa. 
Ya bayyana muhimmancin shawo hankalin jama'a ga anfanin tanadi ta wurin aiki da kafofin watsa labarai.</response>
               <eng-fdbk>Correct! This choice is correct because it follows the expert's support of his topic in a sequence of facts and arguments to explain their social and economic impacts without changing their meaning.</eng-fdbk>
               <fdbk>Daidai ne! Wannan zaben da ya yi daidai , saboda yana bin  yadda mai rubutun ya ƙarfafa kan maganar nazari da nuna zahirin hali da yadda yake shafar mutane ko kasuwanci, ba da sake tunanin shi ba.</fdbk>
            </opt>
            <opt>
               <eng-response>An expert addresses, in this analysis, the importance of a general understanding of savings and trades to insure individual financial growth and a strong economy for Nigeria. He describes the complementary interaction between individuals, professions and government as bringing forward different actions to be considered in order to build a network of well-established companies that would help the educational sector and encourage entrepreneurship, develop smaller savings and credit banks to promote small businesses, and allow individuals to become better managers. The government manages public funds in a way that guarantees basic education to the population because people from lower to higher social classes have all been students once in their lives, but further training is necessary for specific professions.</eng-response>
               <response>Wani gwani yana nazari bisa muhimmancin fahimtar tanadi da sana'a cikin tabbatar da ci gaban ɗaiɗaikun mutane da tattalin arziki a Nijeriya. Yana bayyana irin dangantaka da take tsakanin mutane, sana'oi, da gwamnati tare da shawarwari bisa abubuwa da ya kamata a duba domin a gina: wata sadarwa ta tsayaryun  masana'antu da za su taimaki makarantu, da bunƙasa masu sana'ar  zaman kansu; a buɗe ƙananan bankuna na ajiya da bashi, domin ciyar da ƙananan sana'oi da kuma mutane ga ƙwarewa ga sarrafawar kasuwanci.  Gwamnati yana sarrafa dukiyar ƙasa cikin hanya wadda take tabbatar da cewa dukan mutane sun iliminta saboda kowa ya taɓa halartar makaranta ko sau ɗaya a rayuwarsa, duk da wannan, zuwa gaba ana bukatar horo cikin wasu takaimaiman sana'oi.</response>
               <fdbk>Ba daidai ba! Wannan zaben ba daidai ba ne saboda  an juya maganar mai rubutun a wani yanki. Ku ƙara tunani bisa yadda mai nazarin ya rubuta a kan makaranta. Wannan taƙaitarwar tana bada daidai abin da ya nufa?</fdbk>
               <eng-fdbk>Incorrect! This choice is not correct because it misinterprets some of the expert's ideas. Please think about his comments on education. Does this summary reflect his idea?</eng-fdbk>
            </opt>
         </choices>
      </problem>
   </problemset>
   <instr type="eng">INSTRUCTIONS:
Choose the best summary.</instr>
   <instr type="target">Umurni:Zaɓi taƙaitawa mafi dacewa.</instr>
   <finishtl>Waɗɗane hanyoyi na cikin wannan nazari, za ku shawarci gwamnati ta ƙarfafa koya wa dukan masana'antan Nijeriya bisa tsarin kafa masana'anta don su yi tahiya da zamani?</finishtl>
   <finishtl>A ganinku mutane da sun saba da sarrafa dukiyyoyinsu cikin hanyoyin gargajiya za su yi maraba da waɗɗanan shawarwari? Donmi?</finishtl>
   <finish>What suggestions from the analysis would you advise the government to reinforce in order to train Nigerians of all professions in modern organizations?</finish>
   <finish>Do you think people who are used to managing their wealth in a traditional way would welcome the analyst's advice? Why?</finish>
   <finishtl>Kun ƙara wa matasan Nijeriya ƙarfin su shiga kasuwanci na zaman kansu maimonkon aiki irin wanda hukuma take badawa?
Donmi</finishtl>
   <finish>Would you encourage young Nigerian people to go into the private sector instead of public service? Why?</finish>
</activity>