UMD NFLC Hausa Lessons/138 Nigerian Economics
- 1 Overview
- 2 Transcript
- 3 Preparatory Activity: Multiple Choice
- 4 Comprehension Checks
- 5 Glossary
- 6 Notes
- 7 Dictionaries
- Title: Nigerian Economics
- Description: This is an excerpt from a 2014 radio interview on Nigeria's economic development. WinXP users should install Arial Unicode font.
- Speakers: Malam Dahiru Sani Mohammed
- Program: Democracy
- Publisher: Radio Nigeria Kaduna
- Publication Date: 2014-08-15
- Source Text Type: Radio
- URL: http://www.radionigeriakaduna.net/fc/2013/Damok%2002-10-13.mp3
- Language: Hausa
- Level: 2+/3
- Topic: Economics/Politics
- Cultural Notes: Yes
- Modality: Listening
- Core Competency: Comprehension
- Estimated Duration: 45 minutes
|MALAM DAHIRU SANI MOHAMMED: Al’amuran Nijeriya kusan dai ana iya cewa, to, sai abunda dai mutum ya gani. Kuma idan kana maganar shi abunda ya shafi ci gaba, me kake kallo? Ko kuma ta wane bangare kake kallon ci gaban?
Ci gaba kusan ya kasu ana iya cewa fanni-fanni. Kana iya kallon shi ta bangaren ci gaban tattalin arziki, ci gaban yanayin rayuwar mutane, ci gaban harkoki na siyasa, tsarin mulki, ci gaban abinda ya shafi ɓangaren ilimi da dai sauransu. To, wannan ƙasa muna iya cewa, ko ma yaya muka kalli abun, ana cewa to abun nan ne wanda ake iya cewa to, ko dai a ce ba yabo ba fallasa, ko kuma a ce akwai waɗansu matsaloli a waɗansu ɓangarori. Idan muka ɗauka daga shekarar alif ɗari tara da sittin, lokacin da Ƙasarmu ta samu 'yancin zaman kanta zuwa yanzu, muna iya cewa, an shinfiɗa tushe, ko kuma ginshiƙai na cigaban ƙasa wanda kowa ya gansu, a lokacin zamanin marigayi Firimiyan Arewacin Nijeriya, da shi ma Firimiyan ɓangeren jihohin Yorubawa, da kuma ɓangeren ma abinda ya shafi jihohin Inyamurai da sauransu. Amma, a yanzu, waɗannan abubuwa muna iya cewa sun faro, kamar in ka ɗauki Arewacin Nijeria, an gina kamfanoni da dama waɗanda suke sun samar ma mutane aiki. Amma, a yanzu batunda kake, kamfanonin nan gaba ɗaya sun rushe. Babu su kwatakwata. To! babu su ɗinnan, sai ya zamana kowa ya taru ya tare akan gwamnati. Duk abinda gwamnati ta samu za ta tattara shi ne ga baki ɗaya ta koma tana sama wa mutane aiki. Musanman abinda ya shafi ɓangaren aiki irin na albashi, wanda ƙusan shi muka fi ba da mahimmanci a wannan Ƙasa. Tunda aka samu fetur, sai ya zamana kowa ya tattare, an koma man fetur. Idan ka dawo Arewacin Nijeriya alal misali, ko rijiyan man fetur kwara ɗaya ba mu da ita. Amma gidajen manda zaka samu a Arewacin Nijeriya, kusan kana iya cewa, ko dai sun fi na kowane yanki, ko kuma ka ce ana kan ƙanƙan. Wannan ya ja an samu matsalolin tattalin arziki da dama. Kamar yadda Gwamnan Babban Bankin Nijeriya ya taɓa cewa a kwanan baya, mafi yawan kuɗin da gwamnati ke samu a Nijeriya tana amfani da shi ne a ɓangaren biyan albashi. Shi tatalin arziki kullum yi ake a gane tattalin arzikin ƙasa ya bunƙasa idan ka ɗauki wannan ɓangeren akan yi la’akari, na farko da irin rayuwar da mutanenta suke yi. Shin mutum nawa ne suka fi ƙarfin ci da sha sau ukku a rana? Kamar yadda Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta tsara, a yanzu shi ne a ce a ƙalla kana samun dalar Amurika daya a rana, wanda idan ka ɗauka ka maida shi Naira ɗari da sittin a Najeriya, ka ga ita ma ba kowane gida kake iya cidawa ba. Amma in dai kai kadai ne, za ka iya cin abinci irin na ya kai malam, na yaku bayi a irin ɓangaren kauyuka kamar su Zaria da sauran ƙauyuka da ƙananan hukumomi da muke da su. Amma in ka ɗauki misali kamar Kaduna zuwa Abuja ko Lagos, ba yadda za’a yi naira ɗari da sittin ta cida mutum a rana sau uku. To irin waɗannan abubuwan su zaka yi la’akari. Kuma na biyu a duba a ga shin wannan ƙasa, ita abunda take samarwa, take fitar da shi waje, da kuma wanda take kawo wa cikin gida, da na biya. Idan ka dauki Nijeriya kusan mu mun zama hatta ashana ko reza, ko kuma abin sakace idan an ci abinci yanzu, abunda ake ce ma toothpick a turance, ana fa kawo shi daga wata ƙasa cikin ƙasarnan. Yawan al’umma yana ɗaya daga cikin abinda ke kawo bunƙasar tattalin arziki. A bunƙasa yawan al’umma idan ka ɗauki tun daga lokacin da aka fara kiɗayar jama’a a Najeriya shekara alif ɗari tara da sittin zuwa yanzun nan, an ninka, an sake ninkawa, an sake ninkawa. To, a wannan ɓangaren ba mu da matsala mun samu ci gaba. To, amma, idan ka tara mutane, baka samo masu yadda zasu yi a rayuwa ba, baka samo masu aikin yi ba me kake zatarwa tattarowa? Duk inda aka ce an tara mutane, kuma sannan an rasa, basu hanyoyin da zasu nemi abinci to, an samu matsala. Me ya jawo irin wannan? Wasu lokaci a ce wai yawan al’umma. To, amma, ni kullum abin da nake kallo shi ne, shi ci gaba me yake kawo shi? Ya danganta a ce kuna da shugabanni masu alkibla: waɗanda kullum su suna kallon me yake faruwa a sararin duniya a sauran ƙasashe. Su yi koyi da shi, su ga su kuma su ya zasu yi amfani da abunda suke da shi a cikin ƙasarsu domin su bunƙasa wannan ci gaba na? Su kwai-kwayi waɗancan ƙasashe da suka ci gaba. To amma kusan mu shugabaninmu har yanzu, za ka samu a siyansance tunda siyasar nan ta zo, rigima ce ta yau ana waccan yau, gobe ana waccan, ana faɗa da shugaban ƙasa, gwamnoni na faɗa yasu-yasu. Haka dai za ka ji ana ta yi. Kuma duk kusan abinda muka rasa a wannan ƙasar nan kullum shi ne, kamar yadda na ga wani yana faɗa jiya yake cewa: ai randa aka samu shugabanni masu alƙibla, to za’a samu talakawa masu alkibla, kuma za’a samu ci gaban ƙasa. Koma bangaren ilimi, ilimin nan kamar yadda na ce maka an faro kamar abun arziƙi, amma yanzu, abubuwa sun taɓarɓare. To a irin wannan yanayi, wane irin ci gaba zaka ce ka saba?
|MALAM DAHIRU SANI MOHAMMED: Concerning the problems in Nigeria, one can almost say, well, one can only talk about what one sees. And when you talk about development matters, what exactly are you looking at? And from what angle are you looking at development?
Nearly all progress is divided, let’s say, sector by sector. You can look at economic development, development of people’s quality of life, political affairs, governance, or development in areas that pertain to the educational sector and others. Well, when it comes to this country we can say that no matter how we look at things, one can say that things are going well, or there is nothing to praise or cause embarrassment, or there are some issues within some sectors. If we start from 1960, when our country obtained its independence, until today, we can say that they have established foundations or, better still, pillars of national development which everyone has seen, in the era of the first premier of northern Nigeria, and including the premier of the region of the Yoruba states, and even the areas of the Igbo states, and so on. But presently, we can say that these things have evolved. If you take northern Nigeria as an example, they built a lot of companies that provided employment for the people. But, at the present moment, all these companies have collapsed. They no longer exist at all. Well, since these don’t exist anymore, then everyone became dependent on the government. Whatever [resources] the government gets, they put it all together and use it to find jobs for people, especially the type of employment that involves wages, which we give the highest importance to in this country. Since crude oil was discovered, it seemed everyone decided to make their living there. If you take northern Nigeria, for example, we do not have even a single drop of oil. But the number of service stations in northern Nigeria, you can almost say there are more there than in any other region, or you can simply say there are as many as in other regions. This has brought about a lot of economic problems. Just as the governor of the central bank once said some time ago, most of the money that the government is acquiring in Nigeria is being used to pay wages. We are always trying to understand the national economy, and if you think about it from this angle, the first thing you consider is people’s standards of living. How many people can actually afford to eat and drink three times a day? As the United Nations has proposed, you should earn at least one US dollar a day, which is 160 naira in Nigeria, and you will see that not every house will be fed. But if it is only you, you can eat the type of food you want like a common person, as with the masses in some places such as Zaria and other villages and the local government areas that we have. But if you take an example such as Kaduna and Kano, or Lagos, there is no way 160 naira will be able to feed a person three times a day. So, it is this sort of thing that you should be considering. And secondly, observe this country and consider what it provides, what it exports, and also what it imports, including payments. If you take Nigeria, even matches and razor blades, or even the item used to pick one’s teeth when one eats, which is called a toothpick in English, even it is brought from other countries into this country. The population is one of the things that brings about economic growth. The population has multiplied, if you look at it from when the national census began in Nigeria in 1960 until now, and multiplied again and again. Well, in this sector we don’t have any problems and we have progressed. But if you take a group of people and you don’t provide them with basic necessities, what can you expect from them? Whenever it is said that there is a group of people and we are not able to provide them with any way of making a living, well, we will have problems. What has brought this about? Sometimes it is believed to be overpopulation. Well, but what I look at every day is, what brings about development? It is dependent on whether you have leaders with direction, who are always observing what is happening in the wider world in other countries in order to learn new things, and to see how they can use the things they have in their countries to improve our development. They should imitate those countries which have already developed. But almost all of our leaders up until now have been playing politics since the inception of politics. It is a crisis every day, this today, that tomorrow, they are in conflict with the president; the governments are in conflict with one another. That is what you will hear they keep doing. And almost all that we lack daily in this country is—like I heard someone say yesterday—the day that we find leaders with direction, we will find the people also have direction and we will start seeing national development. Going back to the education sector, I mentioned earlier that education started off well, but now things have deteriorated. So, in this period that we are in, what kind of development are you familiar with?
Preparatory Activity: Multiple Choice
How did a 2014 evaluation of Nigeria's economy affect the country's 2013 GDP?
- [ ] The evaluation decreased the country's 2013 GDP by 90 percent.
- [ ] The evaluation decreased the country's 2013 GDP by 10 percent.
- [ ] The evaluation increased the country's 2013 GDP by 10 percent.
- [ X ] The evaluation increased the country's 2013 GDP by 90 percent.
Feedback: Correct. According to a 2014 article in The Economist , the 2014 evaluation of the Nigerian economy resulted in an almost 90 percent increase in 2013 GDP figures. The article states that the growth rates of economies are usually evaluated according to prices in a base year. The base year should be updated at least every five years, according to the IMF. Nigeria, however, continued to use 1990 as a base year for twenty-four years. Vast changes in the Nigerian economy during that time period rendered the GDP figures inaccurate. In April 2014, statisticians reevaluated Nigeria's economy, using 2010 as a base year. This decision took into account a variety of developments from the growth of the mobile telephone industry to the proliferation of small businesses in the region. As a result of updating the base year, the evaluation of Nigeria's economy increased the country's 2013 GDP from 42.4 trillion naira to 80.2 trillion naira, an overnight increase of almost 90 percent. The interview you are about to listen to was conducted in August 2014, after the reevaluation had occurred. "How Nigeria's Economy Grew by 89% Overnight." April 7, 2014. The Economist . http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2014/04/economist-explains-2.
Comprehension Check Activity 1: Select All that Apply
According to the speaker, Malam Dahiru Sani Mohammed, what are some of the sectors that should be examined when discussing progress in Nigeria?
- [ X ] Quality of life
- [ ] Health outcomes
- [ X ] Economic development
- [ ] Environmental preservation
- [ X ] Political affairs
Feedback: Correct. Mohammed claims that one should examine quality of life, economic development, and political affairs when discussing progress in Nigeria. He also suggests that one should examine governance and education. He does not mention health outcomes or environmental preservation.
Comprehension Check Activity 2: Constructed Response
According to Mohammed, what has become of the pillars of national development? Model Response: Mohammed opines that Nigeria established pillars of national development in the years following Nigerian independence in 1960. These pillars, however, have not stood the test of time. As an example, Mohammed points to companies established in northern Nigeria; according to him, none of these companies operate today.
Comprehension Check Activity 3: Constructed Response
According to Mohammed, what are the effects of the discovery of crude oil in Nigeria? Model Response: Mohammed claims that Nigeria prioritizes employment that supplies wages. He says that, as a result, everyone decided to work in the oil industry following the discovery of crude oil. Following this development, a great number of service stations were installed, even in northern parts of the country that do not produce oil. He states that this has created economic problems, though he does not elaborate on the details of these problems.
Comprehension Check Activity 4: Multiple Choice
What argument does Mohammed make about the UN proposal regarding how much a person should earn in one day?
- [ ] He argues that 160 naira would allow Nigerians to purchase more nutritious foods.
- [ ] He claims one US dollar in Nigeria would not cover the cost of matches and razors.
- [ X ] He insists the equivalent of one US dollar is not sufficient in urban areas of Nigeria.
- [ ] He maintains that earning 160 naira a day would help poor Nigerians live a life of luxury.
Feedback: Correct. Mohammed argues that the UN proposal regarding how much a person should earn in one day is flawed. He acknowledges that one US dollar—or 160 naira—is sufficient to feed a person in certain areas of Nigeria. He points to Zaria and unnamed villages. He maintains, however, that one US dollar would not be sufficient to feed a person in more developed areas of the country, such as Kaduna, Kano, or Lagos. He does not discuss the nutritional value of the food in question. Mohammed mentions matches and razors, but does not discuss whether 160 naira would allow people to buy them. He does not mention a life of luxury.
Comprehension Check Activity 5: Select All that Apply
According to Mohammed, why is economic growth hindered in Nigeria?
- [ ] The population of Nigeria has grown too large.
- [ X ] Nigeria has not imitated successful countries.
- [ X ] Leaders fail to supply Nigeria with direction.
- [ X ] There is conflict within the Nigerian government.
- [ ] Nigeria has not invested well in its oil industry.
Feedback: Correct. Mohammed claims that Nigeria's leaders do not have direction and have failed to observe and learn from successful countries. Moreover, he believes that Nigeria's leaders play politics and create conflict with one another, rather than focusing on leading their country. Although Mohammed mentions the growth of the Nigerian population, he does not believe overpopulation has hindered economic growth. He does not address Nigeria's investment in its oil industry.
- ci gaba <> (lit: eat forward) development
- fanni-fanni <> sector by sector
- ci gaban tattalin arziki <> economic development
- yabo <> praise
- fallasa <> embarrassment. This word is used to refer to disclosing a secret to cause someone embarrassment or shame.
- kwatakwata <> at all
- cidawa <> fed
- yaku bayi <> (lit: slaves) the masses
- alkibla <> direction
- sararin duniya <> wider world
- kwai-kwayi <> imitate
- yasu-yasu <> one another
- randa <> the day that
- taɓarɓare <> deteriorated
The Notes provide cultural and linguistic information helpful for comprehending the text.
The Yoruba and Igbo People in Nigeria
Malam Dahiru Sani Mohammed refers to two specific ethnic groups within Nigeria: the Yoruba and the Igbo. The Yoruba make up a significant constituency within Nigeria. Residing primarily in the southwestern part of the country, the Yoruba people make up the majority of the population in the Nigerian states of Ekiti, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, and Oyo ("Yoruba People" 2014). Meanwhile, the Igbo people make up a significant constituency within another geographical region of Nigeria. Residing primarily in the southeastern part of the country, the Igbo people contribute greatly to the populations in the Nigerian states of Imo and Anambra ("Igbo People" 2014). "Yoruba People." June 10, 2014. New World Encyclopedia. Accessed January 12, 2015. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Yoruba_People. "Igbo People." April 3, 2014. New World Encyclopedia. Accessed January 12, 2015. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Igbo_People.
Awde, Nicholas. 1996. Hausa–English, English–Hausa Dictionary . New York: Hippocrene Books. This bilingual dictionary includes terminology relevant to users with interests in computing, information technology, business, and telecommunications. It includes over eighteen thousand entries. Newman, Paul. 2007. A Hausa–English Dictionary , Yale Language Series. New Haven: Yale University Press. This Hausa to English dictionary includes appendices on grammar and calendar terminology. Newman, Roxana Ma. 1990. An English–Hausa Dictionary , Yale Language Series. New Haven: Yale University Press. This English to Hausa dictionary includes appendices on grammar, pronunciation, and currency systems. On-Line Bargery. n.d. A Hausa–English dictionary and English–Hausa vocabulary. Accessed October 14, 2014. http://maguzawa.dyndns.ws/. This online resource features approximately forty thousand Hausa to English entries. Additional Information For more information about Nigeria's economic outlook in 2014, read "Nigeria," by Barbara Barungi, published on August 25, 2014, on African Economic Outlook, and available at the following URL: http://www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/en/countries/west-africa/nigeria/ For more information about the importance of oil to Nigeria's economy, read "Well Below Par: Overreliance on Oil Spells Trouble for Nigeria," published on November 29, 2014, by The Economist , and available at the following URL: http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21635051-over-reliance-oil-spells-trouble-nigeria-well-below-par For an opinion about what the government should do to address Nigeria's economic problems, read " Wajibi ne mu hadu don ceto Najeriya " (We must come together to save Nigeria), by Abdulkarim Dayyabu, published on January 16, 2015, by the Daily Trust , and available at the following URL: http://www.dailytrust.com.ng/aminiya/index.php/ra-ayoyin-jama-a/8628-wajibi-ne-mu-hadu-don-ceto-najeriya