UMD NFLC Hausa Lessons/41 Handiwork Prevents Idleness
- Lesson Title: Handiwork Prevents Idleness-This editorial explains the importance of handiwork in Hausa societies.
- Language: Hausa
- Topic: Culture/Society
- ILR Level: 2+/3
- ACTFL Proficiency: Superior, Advanced-High; This ACTFL rating is an approximation based on the ILR level
- Modality: Reading
- Learning Objective: Maintenance & Improvement
- Subject Area: Language
- Material Type: LO
- Publication Year: 2007
- ObjectID: HAUS_12117
Handiwork Prevents Idleness
Sana’o’in hannu na hana zaman kashe wando
NOTE: ”Q” represents the Hausa hooked ”K” “X” represents the Hausa hooked “D” “V” represents the Hausa hooked “B”
Kuma har a zamanin yanzu in mutum ya tafi wasu yankunan na qasar zai tabbatar da cewa a kwai sarakuna ko shugabannin masu sana’o’in hannu. Misali anan, shi ne a cikin birnin Zazzau akwai Unguwar Babban Gwani. Tarihi kuwa ya nuna cewa wani shahararren magini ne yazo qasar Zazzau har ya zama Sarkin magina, shi ne kuma tushen kafa wannan Unguwar. Kusan kowane tsohon birnin akwai Sarkin Marina da Maqera, kai Sarkin Kasuwa ita kanta.
Kasuwa ita ce uwar ciniki, domin har kirari ake yi mata cewa, “Kasuwa akai maki dole.” Idan mutum ya yi nazarin waxannan sana’o’i da Hausawa ko kuma ace ximbin qabilun Nijeriya suka shahara suka tumbatsa, kwarewarsu ta kai kusan ko’ina, kuma a wancan lokacin babu masu zaman kasha wando.
Saboda himma da qwazo da mutanen da ke dashi wajen sana’a da neman na kai, in har aka samu mai zaman kasha wando, to ko yana so ko ba ya so dole ya daina domin sunansa kawai malalaci. Hasali ma, matasa idan suna neman aure, bayan an gudanar da bincike kan kyawawan halinsu, to sai kuma an bincika qwazonsu a wajen sana’a, don hakan ne kawai zai iya ba da dammar fahimtar ko mutum zai iya xaukar nauyin iyalansa. Waxanda suke aikata masha’a da sata duk nan da nan ake saninsu. Sarki ko hakimi ko Mai unguwa ko Alqali kan yi masu nasiha duk sa’adda aka kamo su suka gurfana a gabansa kafin a yanke masu hukunci.
Da al’ummar da muke ciki a yanzu za ta gina tarbiyyar xan Adam akan irin waccan qwarewa da mutanen da suka yi a sana’o’in hannu mabambanta, to haqiqa da an samu ragowar zauna gari banza. Kai qarshenta sai mutum ya shiga wasan vuya da ‘’yan uwa da iyaye ko hukuma in har aka ce yana zaman kashe wando. Amma saboda an mayar da al’amarin ba komai ba, yau za ka samu mafi yawan matasa suna iya haquri da babu, amma ba sa iya haquri da qaxan.
Waxanda basu samu irin aikin da suke so ba, to da wuya su jarraba wasu sana’o’in, maimakon haka sai kawai su yi ta gararanba a gari, in a qauyuka suke sai su qwararo zuwa cikin birni; in kuwa waxanda suka kamala makarantun zamani ne to da wuya su yi sana’o’in hannu don kare mutuncin kawunansu.
Rashin tsare-tsare matabbata da za su iya daidaita sana’o’in hannu su tafi kafaxa da kafaxa da irin na zamani ya qara dankwafar da qimarsu, al’amarin hart a kai ga mutum ba zai iya yin tinqaho da su ba, kamar misalin ya ce, “Ni marini ne ko masassaqi ko magini da dai makamantansu.”
Ya zama wajibi akan mahukunta da sauran maxaukaka a cikin al’umma da su riqa qoqarin ganin mutanen sun gina tsarin rayuwarsu akan tarihinsu, musamman ma wajen neman abincinsu. Ya kamata kuma jama’a su riqa haquri da kaxan, don Hausawa na cewa “Maraina kaxan varawo.” Mutanen da suke aiki da hankali sun tabbatar da cewa daga qananan abubuwa ake kaiwa ga manya.
Bayan an faxakar da mutane, to kamata ya yi hukuma ta ba da duk irin tallafin da za ta iya yi wa jama’a, masu hannu da shuni da dukkan maxaukaka a cikin al’umma su ma su bayar da tasu gudunmuwar. Yin haka tabbas zai kai al’umma kan tudun mun tsira
Handiwork Prevents Idleness
Since long ago, people in Hausaland have been engaged in different kinds of manual trades. Besides farming and herding, the residents of this region mostly have engaged in trades pertaining to everyday affairs. One could find people who were builders, dyers, carpenters, blacksmiths, makers of cooking pots and the like. The characteristics of life in those times did not make for an impoverished community, and this was due to nothing more than the fact that nearly every household had some kind of trade that they had held firmly since time immemorial. Eventually, one would achieve a status that ensured respect for his household even among those in power. In that period, instead of moving out and away, they became famous at a certain trade, and indeed the traditional chief would recognize such an individual by appointing him to be a leader from those engaging in a certain trade from the relevant household.
And even to the present day, if a person goes to some regions of the country, it is certain that there will be chiefs or master craftsmen. For example, in the city of Zaria, there is a neighorhood known as “Great Expert.” History suggests that a famous builder came to the kingdom of Zaria and became the Chief Architect, and it was he who established this neighborhood. Nearly every old city has a Chief Dyer and a Chief Blacksmith, even a Chief of the Marketplace itself. The marketplace is the mother of trading, so that a song of praise refers to it by saying, “Marketplace, you have become indispensable.”
If a person studies these trades, he sees that the Hausa or any number of Nigerian tribes made them famous and carried them far and wide, that their influence reached almost everywhere, and that in those days there were no idlers.
Because of the determination and diligence that people had in a trade they practiced, if someone were lazy, then whether he wanted to or not, he had to change, because he would only be known for his idleness. In fact, when a youth wanted to get married, after one studied the quality of his character, one looked into his diligence in a trade, for only this would provide an opportunity to understand whether a man could shoulder the responsibility of a family.
Those who went about drinking and stealing, were all immediately known. The chief, district head, neighborhood leader or judge would give them advice whenever they were arrested, as they knelt before him before judgment was passed.
Were our people of today willing to build their communities on the basis of the qualities of our forebearers who placed emphasis on skill in various trades, we would have fewer idle people. In fact, a man would play hide and seek between himself and his brothers and parents or authorities, just so he could avoid being identified as idle. But because the matter is dismissed as unimportant, today you will find that a great majority of youths will not bother with anything, and have no patience for even the smallest thing. Those who haven’t found the kind of work they like have difficulty trying out trades, and instead they just wander about town or, if they live in a rural area, they migrate into the city; those who have finished their formal schooling have difficulty performing manual trades because they would not want to tarnish their reputations.
The lack of meaningful ways to teach traditional trades in modern-day schooling has only made matters worse. We have reached a stage where a person can no longer, for example, proudly proclaim , “I’m a dyer or a carpenter or a builder and the like.”
It is incumbent upon the authorities and other respected members of the community to keep trying to see that people build their lives following the past, especially in regard to their livelihood. And the public must be a little patient for, as the Hausa say, “Ungrateful people are like thieves.” Intelligent folks have often assured us that tiny acorns grow into mighty oaks.
Besides alerting people, the authorities must provide every kind of support that they can to the public, while the wealthy and all respected members of the community should also help. Doing this would certainly raise the community to a higher level.
|Hausa||Hausa Meaning||English Meaning|
|Su tafi kafa da kafa||Su tafi daidai da juna ko tare.||To go hand in hand, or to be compatible with something|
|Marainin kadan barawo||Ma'ana duk wanda ke raina kaɗan to yana iya sata domin ya wadata.||One who does not appreciate little is a thief; in the text this means those who do not appreciate having little, or even what they have, are the ungrateful|
|Zaman kashe wando.||Zaman rashin aiki.||Sitting to kill/destroy pants, referring to an idle person or mind|
|Kasuwa akai maki dole||Dole mutun na da dalilin zuwa kasuwa.Watau dole aje kasuwa domin sayen ko sayar da kayan masaruhin yau da kullum.||Going to the market is inevitable; one will always need to go to the market, either to take goods to sell or use money to buy goods for daily needs|
|Zazzau||Wanna suna ne da ake kira Zaria a zamanin da.||Zazzau is an ancient name for the present day city in Northern Nigeria called Zaria|
|Masu hannu da shuni||Masu arziki.||The wealthy people or bourgeoisie|
|Kan tudun mun tsira||Yin nasara ko nisa da al'amarin da suke ciki.||This means to escape from a situation or be free from a situation; (literarily means to climb the mountain of safety); also victory|
|Hausa Notes||English Notes|
Handiwork Prevents Idleness
Akwai hausawa fiye da miliyan 20 cikin Afrika ta yamma inda hausa ta fi sauran ƙabilu yawan jama’a . Hausawa sun fi kuma bazuwa cikin arewacin Nijeriya da kudacin Nijar. Yin aiki tsakanin Hausawa ya dangata da shekara da jinsi mace ko namiji. Kasuwanci na cikin manyan ayyukan a birane, sai kuma noma cikin ƙauyuka. Yawancin maza na aiyyuka biyu biyu misali aikin gwamnati kamar koyarwa da kuma kasuwanci. Sai cikin ƙauyyuka ana noma da aikin hannu. Wasu hausawa ma na kasuwancin saide-saide a kantuna ko na tebur. Yawancin Hausawa mallaman ƙur’ani ne.
Matan hausawa kuma na nasu kasuwanci kamar dafawa da saida abinci. Suna saida kaya, tukane, man gyaɗa da dai ƙananan abubuwa kamar su. Saboda kuble da mata suke yi bisa ga ka’idodin musulunci, yara da masu aiki ne kan yi musu aikace-aikacen zuwa kasuwa ko zuwa maƙwabta.
Handiwork Prevents Idleness
The Hausa, numbering more than 20 million, is the largest ethnic group in West Africa. The Hausa people are concentrated mainly in northwestern Nigeria and in adjoining southern Niger. The Hausa society has a strong division of labor according to age and sex. The main activity in the towns is trade; in rural areas, it is agriculture. Many Hausa men have more than one occupation. In the towns and cities, they may have formal jobs, such as teaching or government work, and engage in trade on the side. In rural areas, they farm and also engage in trade or crafts. Some Hausa are full-time traders with shops or market stalls. Many Hausa are full-time Islamic scholars.
Hausa women earn money by processing, cooking, and selling food. They also sell cloth scraps, pots, medicines, vegetable oils, and other small items. Since women are generally secluded according to Islamic law, their children or servants go to other houses or the market on their behalf.
CONTENT SOURCE: Abubakar AbdurRahaman (2007 April 13). Handiwork Prevents Idleness. Abuja: Media Trust.Ltd. http://www.dailytrust.com/sana'a.htm Objective: Demonstrate your core comprehension.
Content description: This editorial explains the importance of handiwork in Hausa societies.
<activity> <problemset> <problem correctindex="0"> <choices> <opt> <eng-response>The author of this editorial compared the olden days to the present day Hausa cities and stated that the present day people are less willing to try options for self-employment. He gave an example of those who have received formal education and are too proud to try different options when their priorities fail. He believes the youth should learn to be appreciative. He also concluded that the society will be successful if the authorities and leaders control, encourage and support the people (especially with materials), ensuring that people are productive by themselves.</eng-response> <response>Marubucin wannan rahoto ya bayyana banbanci tsakanin garuruwan hausa a zamanin da, da na yanzu inda ya kuma yi bayanin cewa mutane yanzu ba su son gwada hanyoyi daban-daban na yi ma kansu aiki. Ya bada misalin waɗanda suka yi karatun boko kuma suke ganin sun fi ƙarfin gwada ayyukan hannu a lokacin da abun da suke son yi bai samu ba. Ya bada gaskiya cewa ya kamata matasa su riƙa godiya da abun da suke da. Ya kuma kammala da cewa za a samu cin nasarar zaman jama'a idan shugabani da manya na bada taimakon su wajen shawarwaru, goyon baya (masanman abun hannunsu) kuma su tabbatar da jama’a na taimaka ma kansu.</response> <eng-fdbk>Correct! The author, in a positive tone, believes today’s society will be better if the authorities and other key players contribute in helping those who need their help.</eng-fdbk> <fdbk>Daidai! Marubucin ya yarda da cewa jama’a za ta ci gaba idan shugabanni sun taimaki masu buƙata taimakonsu.</fdbk> </opt> <opt> <eng-response>In this editorial, the author states the importance of trades in Hausa lands. According to him, handiwork is not new to the Hausa tradition and in the past a king or chief could nominate a leader based on his expertise in a specific trade including builders, potters, dyers and weavers. The author explained that it is always important to be engaged in doing some handiwork, because the young people who stay idle are considered lazy in Hausa lands. He also believes everyone from the authorities to the general public has a part to play in the success of the Hausa society. In disapproval of today’s youths and their ways of life, he assured readers that there will be less unemployment if people today follow the examples of the ancient times.</eng-response> <response>Marubucin wannan rahoto na bayyani ne akan muhinmancin kasuwanci a ƙasashen hausa. Ya faɗa cewa aikin hannu ba sabon abu ne ba cikin al’adun hausa kuma a zamanin da, sarki na iya zaɓen shugaban sana’a ko kasuwanci bisa ga ƙwarewar shi ga aikin misali magina, maƙera, marina da masaƙa. Marubucin ya bayyana cewa a kullum yana da anfani a zanki yin aiki a kowane lokaci saboda matasan da ba su da aiki an ɗauke su a matsayin malalata. Ya kuma yarda da cewa kowa cikin jama’a na da rawar takawa wajen ci gaban ƙasar hausa. Da rashin goyon bayan ayyukan matasa, ya tabbatar da cewa za’a a samu ci gaba idan jama’a ta bi misalan zamanin da.</response> <eng-fdbk>Incorrect! The author did not give a general description of the youths who stay idle. What is his comment about youths in the olden days?</eng-fdbk> <fdbk>Ba daidai ba ne! Marubucin bai bada bayanin matsayin dukan matasan da ba su da aiki ba. Mi ya faɗa game da matasan zamanin da?</fdbk> </opt> <opt> <eng-response>The author of this editorial gave a detailed history of the trades in Hausa cities and how people in the past always tried one form of business or another. There were goldsmiths, farmers, builders, and dyers, among others, and the people elected as leaders from each trade to lead them. One can still find leaders of trades in some old Hausa cities like the head of construction workers who settled in Zaria (Northern Nigeria) and became a head of all the construction workers as a result of his hard work. Everyone worked so hard in the past that the lazy and bad people like thieves are easily identified and punished. The author is disappointed in today’s young people, and believes the society will only get better if the Hausa tradition of unconditional hard work is restored.</eng-response> <response>Marubucin wannan rahoton ya bada cikakken tarihin sana’o’in biranen hausa da yanda mutanen da ke gwada kasuwanci iri-iri. Cikinsu akwai maƙera, manona, magina, da marina kuma jama’a sai ta zaɓi mutun ɗaya ya shugabance ma su yin irin sana’ar. Har yanzu ana samun irin waɗannan shugabanni cikin wasu tsofin biranen husa kamar shugaban maginan day a zauna Zazzau kuma ya zama shugaba saboda ƙwararen aikinshi. A zamanin da kowa na aiki sossai don haka ana iya saurin gane malalata ko ɓarayi kuma a huƙunta su. Da ɓacin rai game da matasa, marubucin ya bada gaskiya cewa sai an dawo ga hanyoyin zamanin da na yin aiki ba tare da sharaɗi ba kaɗai za’a samu ci gaban zaman jama’a.</response> <eng-fdbk>The author did not describe Hausa tradition as a condition for a better society. What is his opinion about handiwork in today’s society?</eng-fdbk> <fdbk>Ba daidai ba ne! Marubucin bai ce al’ada hausawa ba kaɗai ce hanyar cin gaban jama’a. Minene ra’ayinshi game da aikin hannu cikin zaman jama’ar yau.</fdbk> </opt> </choices> </problem> </problemset> <instr type="eng">INSTRUCTIONS: Choose the best summary.</instr> <instr type="target">Umurni:Zaɓi taƙaitawa mafi dacewa.</instr> <finish>How could the educated Hausa people make handiwork or craft work a second option for themselves if their search for office jobs is not successful?</finish> <finish>What role can the leaders in Hausa societies play to see that today's young people are kept busy and away from crime?</finish> <finish>Do you think the people in rural areas of Hausa lands will take advantage of the handiwork more than the people in urban areas? Why or why not?</finish> <finishtl>Yaya hausawa masu ilimin boko ke iya ayyukan hannu ba tare da sun raina ba, a lokacin da suka rasa aikin da su ke son yi?</finishtl> <finishtl>Wace irin rawa shugabannin garuruwan hausa ke iya takawa don tabbatar da matasa na ayyukan da za su hana su aikata wasu laifufuka?</finishtl> <finishtl>A ganinku wa zai fi yin anfani da ayyukan hannu tsakanin ƙauyuka da birane yanzu?</finishtl> </activity>