UMD NFLC Hausa Lessons/46 Choosing a Psychiatrist
- Lesson Title: Choosing a Psychiatrist-This is a commentary about medical treatment of mental illness and religion.
- Language: Hausa
- Topic: Culture/Society
- ILR Level: 2+/3
- ACTFL Proficiency: Superior, Advanced-High; This ACTFL rating is an approximation based on the ILR level
- Modality: Reading
- Learning Objective: Maintenance & Improvement
- Subject Area: Language
- Material Type: LLO
- Publication Year: 2009
- ObjectID: T8RHA07
Larurar taɓin hankali ga musulmai
Musulmi fiye da miliyan uku ne ke zaune a nan Jamus, kuma kamar sauran al´umomi su ma suna fama da matsaloli iri daban-daban, alal misali su kan yi fama da larura ta rashin lafiya wani lokacin ma har da taɓin hankali.
To sai dai yin jiyya ta hanyar tattaunawa da likitan taɓaɓɓu game da matsalolin da shi maras lafiya ke fama da su ba tare da an ba shi magani ba na zaman wani abin ƙyama ga ɗaukacin musulmin saboda ƙarancin irin waɗannan likitoci da suka san al´adu da kuma addinan waɗannan marasa lafiya. Wai shin ana buƙatar wata jiyya ta musamman ne ga musulmi mai taɓin hankali?
A nan Jamus wasu daga cikin musulmin ƙasar da yawansu ya haura miliyan uku suna ɗari-ɗarin zuwa wajen likitoci da ba su da masaniya game da addini da kuma al´adun musulmin, musamman ga masu fama da larurar taɓin hankali. To sai dai a nan ƙasar ba safai ake samun likita musulmi da ya ƙware a fannin jiyyar masu taɓin hankali ba. Aische K. Fiel musulma ce matashiya dake fama da matsala ta fita daga cikin haiyacinta a wurin aiki da kan hanya zuwa gida ko a gida ko kuma a tsakanin ƙawayenta. Likitoci sun sha duba ta ba tare da sun gano ainihin abin da ke damunta ba. Saboda haka kamfanin inshorar lafiya ya ba da shawara da a gudanar da bincike na masu taɓin hankali a kanta.
“Na tattauna da wata ƙawata ɗaliba wadda ta ba ni shawara da in je in ga likita musulmi. Na yi aiki da wannan shawara kuma na je asibitin. Na samu ƙarfin guiwa domin bisa la´akari da wannan larura da nake fama da ita wataƙila da ban samu taimakon da nake buƙata ba daga likita da ba ma musulmi ba.”
Ganin wani musulmi likitan taɓaɓu yana da muhimmanci ga Aische wadda a kullum take rufe kanta da ɗan kwali. A halin da ake ciki yanzu tun bayan da aka fara yi mata jiyya a wasu watanni ƙalilan, Aische ta samu sauƙi daga wannan larura ta fita daga cikin haiyacinta. Yanzu dai an gano cewa wannan ciwo na ta ya samo asali ne daga wata matsala ta dangantaka. A gareta ba za ta iya tattauna wannan batu mai tsarkakiyya da wani likita wanda ba musulmi ba, domin ba su da cikakkiyar masaniya ga al´adun musulmin.
Hatta musulmin da ba sa kula da addini na da ra´ayin cewa musulmai ´yan uwansu za su fi fahimtar al´adunsu da kuma dokokin addinin. Suna fargabar cewa likitocin taɓaɓɓu waɗanda ba musulmi ba ka iya yin watsi da addininsu, inji Malika Laabda Lawi, wata musulma likitar taɓaɓɓu.
“A tunani na, musulmi marasa lafiya na fargabar cewa ba za a ba da la´akari ga al´adunsu ba. Ina ganin kafofin yaɗa labaru na taka muhimmiyar rawa a nan saboda irin labaran da suke watsawa game da addinin musulunci, wanda a lokuta da dama labarai ne na ɓatanci. Su ma majiyyatan na ganin cewa ai masu dubansu wato likitocin ´ya´yan wannan al´umma ne saboda haka salon tunanin iri ɗaya ne.”
Malika Laabda-Lawi haifaffiyar ƙasar Maroko yanzu haka dai da ita da mijinta Ibrahim Rüschoff suna tafiyar da wani asibiti a garin Rüsselsheim. Ibrahim Rüschoff ya musulunta lokacin da yake karatu a jami´a. Da shi da mai ɗakinsa sun ce bai dace ba a ce dole sai musulmi ya je wajen likita musulmi neman magani. Suka ce a likitoci musulmi musamman waɗanda suka ƙware a fannin yiwa taɓaɓɓu jiyya ba su da yawa a nan Jamus. To amma duk da haka yarda da kuma ´yar masaniya game da al´adun musulmin ya na da muhimmanci ga likitocin da ba musulmi ba. Ga Ibrahim Rüschoff batun addini bai taka wata rawa a wajen aikinsa.
“Kamar sauran likitoci masu ba da shawarwari, mu ma muna aikinmu bisa ilimin kimiyya da kuma dokokin sana´armu. To amma amincewa da juna shi ne matakin farko wanda kuma ke kawo sauƙi ga aikinmu. A gare ni ba abin damuwa ba ne idan majiyaci musulmi ya ba ni labarin rayuwarsa, zan fahimce shi domin labarin na da alaƙa da al´adunsa. Kuma wataƙila kasancewa ta musulmi na san irin tambayoyin da zan yi masa, saɓani wani wanda bai da wata masaniya game da addinin majiyacin.”
Rüschoff da Laada-Lawi sun san ƙabli da ba´adi da al´adun musulman musamman waɗanda suka shafi matsaloli a tsakanin iyali da kuma ma´aurata. Sun kuma san abubuwan da ya kamata a yiwa majiyaci da waɗanda ba su kamata ba. Da yawa daga cikin musulmai na ɗari-ɗari ga zuwa wajen likitocin masu ba da shawara saboda rashin yarda. Ɗaukacinsu sun gwammace su je wajen limamai ko kuma masu duba don neman shawara. To sai dai hakan ba shi ne mafita ba inji Malika Laabda-Lawi sannan sai ta ƙara da cewa.
“Ina ganin a tsakanin al´ummomin ƙasashen Larabawa da na Turai musamman na yankin kudancin Turai, idan ba su da lafiya sai su ce aljannu ne ko kuma wasu ƙwanƙwamai ne ke damunsu. Saboda haka ba mune matakin farko da suke zuwa wurinmu, wajen bokaye suke fara zuwa neman magani. Mu kuwa muna matsayin mataki na biyu ne idan ba a dace a wajen bokan ba.”
Manyan dalilan da ke sa musulmin zuwa wajen likitocin taɓaɓɓu shi ne matsaloli tsakaninsu da iyayen su. Yayin da iyayen ke son su ci-gaba da bin al´adun gargajiya na tun kakan kakanni, su kuwa matasan na jin kamar an takura musu ne. Sau da yawa iyayen na ba da hujja ne da dokokin addinin musulunci, to sai dai ba kullum ne ake samun wata alaƙa tsakanin ala´dun da kuma addinin ba. Laabda-Lawi ta ce matasa musulmi na neman bayani ne daga littattafan addini, intanet da abokanne kuma suna tattaunawa da iyayensu.
“Akwai ´yan Pakistan da ´yan Marokko da kuma Turkawa waɗanda ba dukkan ɓangarorin al´adunsu na gargajiya suka dace da musulunci ba. Wato kenan akwai banbanci, saboda haka matasan suke saka ayar tambaya game da shin menene musuluncin. Shi yasa suke zurfin bincike don rarrabewa tsakanin al´adun gargajiya da addini. Hakan dai na janyo rashin jituwa tsakaninsu da iyayensu. Wato ta haka matasan na yanzu suna ƙoƙarin rarrabewa tsakanin rayuwa ta addinin musulunci da kuma rayuwa a al´adance, abin da wataƙila ba ya yiwa iyayensu daɗi.”
Don magance irin wannan saɓanin bai kamata likita ya yi fatali da addinin majiyacin ko kuma ya ɗauki addinin a matsayin wani ciƙas ga sajewar baƙi a cikin ƙasa ba. To amma fargabar da yawa daga cikin musulmin kenan. Saboda haka suka fi son zuwa wajen likitoci musulmi domin suna jin an fi mutunta su wajen musulmin. Yanzu haka dai Ibrahim Rüschoff da matarsa Malika Laabdallawai sun rubuta wani littafi da zai taimakawa sauran likitoci yadda za su tinkari matsalolin da ake fuskanta da musulmi majiyata.
DW-WORLD.DE | Print
Mohammad Awal | www.dw-world.de | © Deutsche Welle.
The Challenge of Mental Illness for Muslims
There are more than 3 million Muslims living here in Germany and, like other communities, they suffer from various problems. For example, at times they suffer from the challenge of illness, which includes mental illness.
But getting treatment by talking to a psychiatrist about the problems the sick person is suffering from without being given medication is taboo for all Muslims because of a shortage of doctors who are familiar with these patients’ customs and religion. So is there a need for some other special treatment for Muslims suffering from mental illness?
Here in Germany, some of the country’s more than 3 million Muslims, especially those suffering from the problem of mental illness, are apprehensive about doctors with no knowledge of the religion and customs of Islam. But in this country, it is difficult to find a Muslim doctor who is a specialist in treating people with mental illness. Aische K. Fiel is a female Muslim teenager who suffers from a psychological disorder at work, during her commute, at home, and also while traveling. Doctors examined her without being able to determine what was actually bothering her. Because of this, the health insurance company decided that she should undergo mental health tests.
“I spoke with a fellow student who advised me to go see a Muslim doctor. I thought about this advice and went to the hospital. I received confirmation concerning this problem I am suffering from, and perhaps I wouldn’t have received the help that I needed from a doctor who wasn’t also a Muslim.”
Seeing a Muslim psychiatrist was important to Aische, who always covers herself with a headscarf. Since she began receiving treatment a couple of months ago, Aische has now had some relief from her psychological problem. Now it is understood that her illness originated from a problem with her relatives. In her view, she could not talk about this sacred subject with doctors who are not Muslim because they do not have a complete knowledge of Islamic customs.
Even non-observant Muslims are of the opinion that their Muslim brothers would be more understanding of their customs and religious laws. They are fearful that psychiatrists who are not Muslim would reject their religion, according to Malika Laabda-Lawa, a female Muslim psychiatrist.
“As I see it, Muslims who are ill are afraid that their customs will not be respected. I believe that news broadcasters play a major role in this because of the kind of stories they broadcast about Islam, stories that are frequently negative. And patients believe that those examining them, that is, their doctors, are products of this community and therefore think the same way.”
Malika Laabda-Lawi was born in Morocco, but now she and her husband, Ibrahim Rüschoff, run a hospital in the town of Rüsselsheim. Ibrahim Rüschoff converted to Islam while he was studying at a university. Both he and his wife disagree with the idea that a Muslim person should only go to a Muslim doctor for medical treatment. They say that there are few Muslim doctors in Germany, especially ones who are experts in the field of psychiatric treatment.
“Like other doctors who make diagnoses, we perform our work according to scientific knowledge and the regulations of our trade. But mutual trust is the first step that brings relief in our work. It does not concern me if a Muslim patient tells me his life story; I will understand him because the story relates to his customs. And perhaps by being a Muslim, I will know the kinds of questions to ask him, as opposed to someone who has no knowledge of the patient’s religion.”
Rüschoff and Laada-Lawi are familiar with Muslim prayers and customs, especially those that concern problems between husbands and wives. They also know what is required to treat a patient and what is not. Many Muslims are apprehensive about going to doctors who give advice against their will. They would all prefer to go to imams or fortune-tellers for advice. But this is not the way out, according to Malika Laabda-Lawi, who continues by saying,
“I believe that among communities in both Arab and European countries, especially in parts of southern Europe, when they’re not feeling well, they say it’s the jinns or some evil spirits that are upsetting them. Because of this, we are not the first step they have taken; they first go to a traditional healer to seek medicine before they come to see us. We are the second step after going to the traditional healer has not helped.”
The main reasons that Muslims go to psychiatrists are for problems with their families. When the family wants them to continue following the traditional customs of their ancestors, young people feel constricted. On many occasions, the family gives the excuse of Islamic laws, but there is not always a connection between customs and religion. Laabda-Lawi says that young Muslims seek guidance from religious books, the Internet, their friends, and by talking with their families.
“There are Pakistanis, Moroccans, and Turks for whom not every area of their traditional customs is consistent with Islam. That is, there are distinctions, and because of this, young people feel free to ask questions as to the meaning of Islam. This is why they are so intent on differentiating between traditional customs and religion. And this is what creates the tension between them and their families. In other words, this is how the young people of today try to distinguish between a life governed by Islam and a life governed by custom, which may not please their families.”
By addressing this kind of incongruity, the doctor needn’t disparage the patient’s religion or regard their religion as a hindrance to assimilation in a new country. But there is much anxiety among Muslims, and so they prefer to go to Muslim doctors because they feel like a Muslim will treat them more decently. Ibrahim Rüschoff and his wife Malika Laabda-Lawi are currently writing a book that will help other doctors address the problems they face with Muslim patients.
DW-WORLD.DE | Print
Mohammad Awal | www.dw-world.de | © Deutsche Welle.
|Taɓin hankali||mental illness|
|ɗaukacin musulmi||all Muslims|
|ɗari-ɗari||(lit: to be cold) apprehensive, skeptical|
|ba safai||difficult, very rare|
|damuntaba||bothering her, wrong with her|
|kamfanin inshora||insuarance company|
|haiyacinta||psychological disorder, psycological problem, her consciousness|
|kafofin yaɗa labarai||media|
|waɗanda suka ƙware||experts, specialists|
|saɓani||as opposed to|
|ma'aurata||husbands and wives, married couples|
|ɗaukacinsu||they, the majority of them|
|masu duba||fourtune tellers|
|aljannu/ ƙwanƙwame||evil spirit|
1. Medical Treatment in Muslim Societies in Northern Nigeria
Traditional methods of healing among Northern Nigerian Muslims include having an Islamic preacher or imam write a Quranic verse for them. The preacher would write a healing verse on small board in black liquid or chalk and then wash it off with water in a dish that the sick person will use to drink and believe that he will be healed. Or they turn to traditional healers because they will see what science cannot see. It is also important to note that this is more prevalent among people who have little or no western education, especially in African Muslim communities or among Muslim extremists.
2 More Information
For more information about science and Islam, please visit the following links: