bbchausa verticals/005 lethologica

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#: The act of having a word on the tip of your tongue can be frustrating, [1] <> Kokarin tuno wani suna ko kalma wadda ka santa amma ta gagare ka tunawa a lokacin da kake son amfani da ita abu ne da zai bata maka rai, [2]

#: but can also say a lot about how memory works. [3] <> amma kuma zai bayyana abubuwa da yawa kan yadda kwakwalwarmu (hadda) ke aiki. [4]

#: Have you ever tried to unsuccessfully retrieve a word from the tip of your tongue? [5] <> Ka taba kokarin amfani da wata kalma amma ka kasa tuna ta ko fadarta? [6]

#: Most of us have experienced itthe usually simple process of verbalising a turn of phrase is somehow thwarted by an annoying mental block. [7] <> Ba shakka yawancinmu mun taba yin wannan mantuwa wadda a Ingilishi ake kira Lethologica, [8]

#: When this happens, [9] <> amma idan hakan ta kasance [10]

#: often we turn to a glossary of alternatives to fill the temporary void. [11] <> sai nan da nan mu karkata kundin kwakwalwarmu domin neman wata kalma domin cike wannan gurbi na wucin-gadi. [12]

#: The sheer number of these fill-ins [13] <> Yawan kalmomin da ake amfani da su domin cike gurbin [14]

#: highlights a human proclivity for forgetting the names of things and people, and also highlights the frequency of thoseon the tip of my tongueexperiences. [15] <> na nuna tsananin yadda mutum yake yawan manta sunayen abubuwa da mutane. [16]

#: Like many other English terms associated with the mind, [17] <> Kamar yawancin kalmomi ko sunaye na Ingilishi, masu nasaba da zuciya (tunani), [18]

#: lethologica is a modern word derived from classical Greek. [19] <> ita ma kalmar wannan mantuwa 'lethologica' sabuwar kalma ce da aka kirkiro daga harshen mutanen Girka na asali. [20]

#: In this case, [21] <> A nan [22]

#: the Greek words [23] <> kalmomin na Girka [24]

#: are lethe (forgetfulness) [25] <> su ne 'lethe' (mantuwa) [26]

#: and logos (word). [27] <> da 'logos' (kalma). [28]

#: In Greek mythology, [29] <> A addinin gargajiya na mutanen na Girka [30]

#: Lethe was also one of the five rivers [31] <> kalmar 'lethe' harwayau na nufin daya daga cikin koguna biyar [32]

#: of the underworld [33] <> na karkashin wannan duniya, [34]

#: where the souls of the dead drank to forget all earthly memories. [35] <> inda ruhunin wadanda suka mutu yake shan ruwa domin ya manta da duk wani abu da ya sani game da duniya. [36]

#: The coinage of lethologica is popularly attributed to psychologist Carl Jung (Credit: Getty Images) [37] <> Ana ganin masanin tunanin dan adam Carl Jung ne ya kirkiro kalmar mantuwar kalma (lithologica) [38]

#: The coinage of this term is popularly attributed to psychologist Carl Jung in the early 20th Century, [39] <> To ita kalmar 'lethologica' da aka lakaba wa wannan irin mantuwa ta kalma ko suna, ana cewa masanin tunanin dan adam Carl Jung shi ne ya hada ta a farkon karni na 20. [40]

#: but the earliest clear record is in the 1915 edition of Dorlands American Illustrated Medical Dictionary, [41] <> Amma kuma cikakken bayani na farko yana cikin Kamus din kalmomin likitanci ne na Amurka wallafar Dorland bugu na 1915, [42]

#: where lethologica is defined as theinability to remember the proper word’. [43] <> inda a ciki aka fassara kalmar ta 'lethologica' a matsayin 'kasa tuna kalmar da ta dace'. [44]

#: Whatever the precise origin of the coinage, [45] <> To koma dai menene asalin wannan kalma, [46]

#: the importance of memory and forgetting in Jungs studies of the unconscious, [47] <> amfanin hadda da mantuwa a binciken da Carl Jung ya yi na abin da muke yi ba tare da mun sani ba, [48]

#: and in Greek mythology, is echoed in our modern understanding of how memory works in the brain. [49] <> da kuma a ilimin addinin gargajiya na Girka, ya kara bayyana a fahimtarmu ta yau da yadda hadda ke aiki a kwakwalwa. [50]

#: As many of us will intuitively understand, [51] <> Kamar yadda da dama daga cikinmu za mu iya fahimta da kanmu, [52]

#: the brain does not function like a computer, [53] <> kwakwalwa ba ta aiki kamar kwamfuta, [54]

#: where data is neatly stored away and retrieved at the press of a button. [55] <> inda ake adana bayanai a tsanake, sanna kuma idan ana son nemo su a danna wani abu kawai su fito. [56]

#: As psychologist Tom Stafford points out, [57] <> Masanin tunanin dan adam, Tom Stafford ya nuna cewa, [58]

#: our memories are amazing, [59] <> 'kwakwalwarmu (hadda) na da ban mamaki, [60]

#: but they respond to how many associations we make with new information, [61] <> amma kuma tana aiki ne da yawan dangantaka ko alakar da yi wa wani sabon bayani da muka adana a cikinta. [62]

#: not with how badly we want to remember it”. [63] <> Ba ruwanta da matukar bukatar da muke da ita a lokacin da muka bukaci sani ko tunowa ko dauko wannan bayani daga gareta. [64]

#: How well we can recall a word may depend on links to other important bits of information [65] <> Kuma yawan abubuwan da muka danganta da rigar a lokacin da muka mika wa kwakwalwar kalmar ta ajiye mana shi ne zai sa ta yi saurin kawo mana ita idan mun bukace ta. Amma idan ba mu yi haka ba sai ya kasance ta kasa kawo mana kalmar. [66]

#: Recalling every word in our vocabulary can be tough. [67] <> Tuno da duk wata kalma da ke kwakwalwarmu abu ne mai wuya. [68]

#: For instance, the Oxford English Dictionary contains some 600,000 words, [69] <> Misali kamus din Ingilishi na Oxford yana dauke da kalmomi dubu 600, [70]

#: and even these do not represent the totality of the English vocabulary. [71] <> kuma hakan ma ba wai iya karshen kalmomin Ingilishi kenan ba. [72]

#: The active vocabulary used by an adult in speech and writing is much less than this, [73] <> Kalmomin da babban mutum ke amfani da su a rubutu da magana ba su kai ko kusa da dubu 600 ba, [74]

#: but according to David Crystal it often exceeds 50,000 words.* [75] <> amma kamar yadda David Crystal ya bayyana su kan fi dubu 50. [76]

#: There will, of course, be many more words that a person understands but does not use in everyday speech and writing. [77] <> Amma kuma akwai wasu kalmomin da yawa wadanda mutum ya sani wadanda ba ya amfani da su a rubutu da maganganunsa na yau da kullum. [78]

#: Words from this passive vocabulary form a large subset of the words experienced in lethologica. [79] <> To irin wadannan kalmomi su ne yawanci suke cikin wadanda ba ma iya tuna su wani lokaci. [80]

#: Our vocabularies often exceed 50,000 words - but those words we rarely use are more easily forgotten [81] <> Kalmomin da suke kanmu sukan fi 50,000 kuma mun fi manta wadanda ba ma amfani da su sosai [82]

#: The words we rarely use, [83] <> Kalmomin da ba kasafai muke amfani da su ba [84]

#: including proper names, are the ones we often forget. [85] <> kamar na sunayen mutane su muka fi mantawa. [86]

#: Because our minds are associative and are built out of patterns of interconnected information, [87] <> Kuma saboda kamar yadda muka ambata a can baya, idan ba mun danganta kalma ko mun raba ta da wasu bayanai ko abubuwa da muka sani ba, [88]

#: how well we can recall a word may depend on these patterns or links to other important bits of information. [89] <> sai mu kasa tuna ta a lokacin da muke son tuno ta, [90]

#: And so, the many thousands of words stored in our brains that we rarely use may be harder to recall at short notice, [91] <> domin sai ta haka ne kwakwalwarmu za ta iya kawo mana ita nan da nan, [92]

#: because we have not yet formed the necessary links to other important bits of information that make memories easily retrievable. [93] <> idan mun hada kalmar da wasu abubuwan da tun da muka ba kwakwalwar ajiya ta saba da su. [94]

#: Lethologica is both the forgetting of a word and the trace of that word we know is somewhere in our memory. [95] <> Kalmar 'lethologica' na nufin mantawa da wata kalma, da kuma aikin nemo wannan kalma (da muka manta) wadda muka sani tana wani sako a kwakwalwarmu. [96]

#: Perhaps it is necessary for us to drink from the river Lethe [97] <> Watakila dole ne mu sha ruwan kogin 'lethe' (kogin karkashin duniya wanda matattu suke shan ruwansa su manta da abubuwan duniyar nan) [98]

#: to help us temporarily forget the trivial and unnecessary, so we can prioritise the information that is important to our lives. [99] <> domin ya taimaka mana na wucin-gadi mu manta da abubuwa marassa muhimmanci da wadanda ba su zama dole a wajenmu ba, saboda mu fi bayar da fifiko kan kalmomi da bayanan da ke da amfani ga rayuwarmu. [100]