bbchausa verticals/009 money morals

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#: The complicated ways that money messes with your morals [1] <> Yadda kudi ke sauya maka dabia [2]

#: A string of studies [3] <> Nazarce-nazarce da yawa [4]

#: appeared to show that [5] <> na nuna cewa [6]

#: rich people are more [7] <> masu kudi sun fi talakawa [8]

#: tight-fisted [9] <> rowa [10]

#: and less trustworthy[11] <> da cin amana[12]

#: but whats the truth in the claims? Claudia Hammond investigates. [13] <> ko menene gaskiyar wadannan maganganu? [14]

#: At some time or another youve probably found yourself in a bar where the richest person present seems to be the slowest to reach for their wallet when its time to buy a round. [15] <> Ba mamaki ka taba zama a majalisar hira, inda mai kudin cikinku shi ne na karshen daukar nauyi idan an tashi sayen wani abin motsa baki. [16]

#: You might wonder whether they were always this mean, and maybe that helped them become rich? Or is there something about having money thats made them mean? [17] <> Mai yiwuwa ne ka tambayi kanka dama can rowar ce ta basu damar tara kudin ko kuwa mallakar kudi ke sa mutane su tsiri rowa? [18]

#: Its a complex question [19] <> Wannan tambaya ce mai sarkakiya [20]

#: and one that can be approached in many different ways. [21] <> wacce za a iya tunkararta ta fuskoki dabam-daban. [22]

#: You could take a group of people known to be interested in the topic of money, [23] <> Ka na iya daukar wani rukunin mutane da ke da dangantaka da harkokin kudin, [24]

#: such as economists, [25] <> kamar masu ilimin nazarin tattalin arziki, [26]

#: and compare their generosity with others. [27] <> ka gwada kyautarsu da ta sauran jamaa. [28]

#: One study from back in 1993 [29] <> Wani bincike da aka yi a 1993 [30]

#: did just this and found that the number of economics students [31] <> ya gano cewa daliban nazarin tattalin arziki [32]

#: who admitted to giving nothing to charity [33] <> da su ka ce ba su taba bada sadaka ba [34]

#: was double that of those studying architecture or psychology. [35] <> sun nunka dalibai masu nazarin taswirar gine-gine da ilimin halayyar dan Adam wadanda ba sa ba da sadaka. [36]

#: The same researchers also found that [37] <> Binciken ya kuma gano cewa [38]

#: economics students were less likely to behave kindly in games involving [39] <> daliban nazarin tattalin arzikin sun fi sauran dalibai rashin kyautawa a wasannin da ke bukatar [40]

#: co-operation such as the Prisoners Dilemma. [41] <> hadin kai irin su Prisoners Dilemma. [42]

#: When students were assessed [43] <> Da aka gwada dalibai [44]

#: at the start and end of their degree courses, [45] <> a farkon fara digirinsu da kuma bayan kammalawarsu, [46]

#: those studying other subjects [47] <> wadanda ke karantar wasu fannonin [48]

#: became slightly more generous [49] <> kan kara yawan sadakarsu [50]

#: as they approached graduation [51] <> yayin da su ke kammala makaranta [52]

#: while economics students [53] <> amma masu karantar fannin tattalin arziki [54]

#: remained at the same less-generous level throughout. [55] <> su na nan yadda su ke lokacin da su ka shiga makaranta. [56]

#: Of course these are averages, [57] <> Amma fa wannan sakamakon jimillar dalibai ne [58]

#: so altruistic economics students exist too. [59] <> don kuwa ba a rasa daidaikun daliban tattalin arziki masu hannun kyauta. [60]

#: In fact, [61] <> A hakikanin gaskiya ma, [62]

#: there is some evidence showing that people who have more money, [63] <> akwai hujjar da ke nuna cewa masu kudi, [64]

#: or who live in more expensive areas at least, might behave more altruistically. [65] <> ko kuma dai akalla mazauna unguwanni masu tsada sun fi talakawa kirki. [66]

#: Researchers walked around 20 different parts of London, [67] <> Masu bincike sun kewaya unguwannin birnin London 20, [68]

#: scattering 15 stamped, addressed letters onto the pavements in each area. [69] <> inda su ka zubar da wasiku 15 a kowacce unguwa. [70]

#: Then they waited to see how many letters would be found by kindly passers-by and posted. [71] <> Kowacce wasika na cikin ambulan da aka rubuta adireshi kuma aka manna kan sarki. [72]

#: N/A [73] <> Daga nan sai su ka koma su ka jira su ga adadin wadanda za a tsinta a kai gidan waya. [74]

#: In the richer areas such as Wimbledon 87% of the letters found their way home, compared with just 37% in poorer districts, such as Shadwell. [75] <> A unguwannin masu kudi irin su Wimbledon kaso 87 aka aika da su, amma a unguwannin talakawa irin su Shadwell kaso 37 kawai aka samu. [76]

#: People living in affluent areas are more likely [77] <> Akwai yiwuwar mutanen dake zaune a unguwanni masu galihu [78]

#: to make an organ donation - [79] <> su rika bada sadaka, [80]

#: but it could be they are simply happier, making them more altruistic (Credit: Alamy) [81] <> koda yake mai yiwuwa saboda suna da saukin kai kuma cikin farin ciki [82]

#: The better-off also appear to show their generous side more often with so-calledacts of extraordinary altruism’ – actions where there is little public recognition [83] <> Bugu da kari, masu kudi sun fi ba da kyautar da jamaa ba za su sani ba, [84]

#: and no chance of someone doing the same for you in return. [85] <> kuma babu damar wani ya rama musu nan gaba. [86]

#: For example, [87] <> Misali, [88]

#: Kristin Brethel-Haurwitz and Abigail Marsh from Georgetown University tried to find out [89] <> Kristin Brethel-Haurwitz da Abigail Marsh da ke jamiar Georgetown sun yi kokarin gano [90]

#: why rates of kidney donation to strangers vary so much between different US states. [91] <> dalilan da ke sa akan samu gagarumin bambanci tsakanin sassan kasar Amurka a adadin masu bada kyautar koda ga mutanen da basu san su ba. [92]

#: They looked at various factors including religiosity, [93] <> Sun yi laakari da dalilai da dama ciki har da riko da addini, [94]

#: but the strongest predictor was median income levels. [95] <> amma babban abinda su ka gano ya na da tasiri kan karuwar masu bada kyautar koda ga mutanen da basu san su ba shi ne karuwar kudin shiga ga alumma. [96]

#: Simply put, states where people earned more money saw more kidney donations. [97] <> Wato dai jihohin da mutane su ka fi samun kudin shiga su ne su ka fi bada kyautar koda. [98]

#: This doesnt necessarily show that richer individuals are more likely to donate a kidney than poorer people. [99] <> Wannan ba lallai ya na nufin cewa masu kudi sun fi talakawa bayar da kyautar kodar ba ne, [100]

#: What it does suggest is that higher altruism seems to be associated with increasing affluence in a population, [101] <> amma dai ya na nufin akwai dangantaka tsakanin kyauta da samu koda yake karuwar lafiya wacce ita ma ta na da alaka da samu, [102]

#: but this might because there are also higher rates of wellbeing, which in turn allow people to behave more altruistically. [103] <> na iya sa mutane su kara zama masu kyauta. [104]

#: Thats until you read the work of Paul Piff from the University of California Berkeley. [105] <> Wannan haka ya ke idan ba ka karanta nazarin Paul Piff na jamiar California Berkely ba. [106]

#: In one study he gave people a series of statements to measure entitlement, [107] <> A wani bincike da ya yi, ya raba wa mutane takardu dauke da wasu maganganu domin gwada son kai. [108]

#: such asIf I were on the Titanic I would deserve to be on the first lifeboat.’ [109] <> Misalin maganganun shi neIn da ina cikin jirgin Titanic na cancanci a cece ni cikin kwalelen farko.’ [110]

#: Staggeringly some people did endorse this comment and the people who did, were more often rich than poor. [111] <> Masu kudi ne su ka fi amincewa da wannan maganar fiye da talakawa. [112]

#: The richer people were also more likely to agree that they were never wrong and good at everything, and to check their appearance in a mirror before their photo was taken. [113] <> Masu kudin kuma su ne su ka fi amincewa da ba sa kuskure, sun kware akan komai, kuma su na duban madubi kafin a dauki hotonsu. [114]

#: In another study [115] <> A wani binciken dabam kuma, [116]

#: Piff assembled a group earning a range of incomes, some on as much as $200,000 a year, [117] <> Piff ya tara mutane da ke samun kudin shiga hawa-hawa ciki har da masu samun akalla $200,000 a shekara, [118]

#: and gave each of them $10. They could choose how much of it, if anyone to give away. [119] <> inda ya ba kowannensu $10 kuma ya basu damar su yi sadaka da duk abin da su ke so daga ciki. [120]

#: Piff found the poorer people were more generous. [121] <> Piff ya gano cewa talakawan cikinsu sun fi bayarwa da auki. [122]

#: But remember, these people were rich before they took part in Piffs tests. [123] <> Amma fa ku tuna, wadannan mutanen daman masu kudi ne tun kafin Piff ya gwada su. [124]

#: Maybe it was not their wealth that dictated their behaviour, [125] <> Mai yiwuwa ba kudin ne ya sauya musu dabia ba, [126]

#: but their behaviour which helped them to become wealthy. [127] <> dabiar ce ta taimaka musu su ka yi kudin. [128]

#: Maybe being more careful with money, [129] <> Ba mamaki tsimi da tanadi, [130]

#: coupled with an inflated sense of self belief, helped them to get rich. [131] <> tare da jin cewa sun cancanci komai a duniya, su ne su ka taimaka musu su ka yi kudin. [132]

#: So how about making someone artificially wealthy? Would that change them? [133] <> To me zai hana a azurta wani mutum a dakin gwaji don ganin ko hakan zai sauya masa dabia? [134]

#: but Piff watched proceedings through a one-way mirror to see what else might change once they became artificiallyrich”.   [135] <> Sai dai Piff ya buya a wani dakin dabam ya na kallon wasan ta cikin madubi domin ganin wadanne abubuwa ne kuma za su sauya bayan da dan wasan ya yi kudin gan-gan. [136]

#: Many were noisier, whooping and bouncing their racing car loudly around the board. [137] <> Da yawansu kan cika baki a lokacin wasan. [138]

#: Some took more than their fair share of a bowl of pretzels on the table, [139] <> Wasunsu kuma su kan debi fiye da kasonsu a kayan kwalan-da-makulashen da ke kan teburin wasan. [140]

#: and after the game when asked why they thought theyd won, [141] <> Bayan kammala wasan, Piff ya kan tambaye su menene sirrin nasararsu, [142]

#: they talked of the effort theyd put in and the wise decisions theyd made. [143] <> inda su kan yi bayanin kokarinsu da hikimarsu. [144]

#: Not one person mentioned the financial advantage theyd been given from the start of the game. [145] <> Amma ba a samu ko guda daya da ya ce nunkin kudin da aka ba shi ne ya jawo masa nasarar ba. [146]

#: So perhaps having money, even temporarily, can make you more self-centred. [147] <> Don haka, mai yiwuwa ne samun kudi, ko da na wucin-gadi ne kan sa mutane son-kai. [148]

#: Expensive cars are less likely to stop at [149] <> Motoci masu tsada ba kasafai suke tsayawa [150]

#: a pedestrian [151] <> masu tafiya da kafa [152]

#: crossing, perhaps suggesting that richer drivers are less well-mannered (Credit: Alamy) [153] <> don su tsallake titi ba, mai yiwuwa hakan na nuna cewa direbobi attajirai basu da dabi'a mai kyau [154]

#: Piff has also spent his time hiding by pedestrian crossings in the San Francisco Bay Area [155] <> Piff ya kuma gudanar da wani nazarin a wata mahadar hanya a garin San Francisco [156]

#: to see whether the drivers of cheap or expensive cars are more likely to stop. [157] <> domin ganin motocin da suka fi tsaya wa a danjar bada hannu tsakanin masu tsada da masu arha. [158]

#: Youve probably guessed by now that the drivers of the fancy cars dont come out so well, with all the cheap cars stopping and only half the drivers of [159] <> Idan ka ce matukan motoci masu arha ne suka fi matukan [160]

#:  the expensive cars behaving so courteously. [161] <> motoci masu tsada tsayawa a danjar bada hannu, to ka cinka. [162]

#: But this study was pretty small. And of course the type of car was only a proxy for richness. [163] <> Amma dai tuka mota mai tsada ba lallai ya na nufin mallakar kudi ba. [164]

#: Maybe they were driven by chauffeurs [165] <> Mai yiwuwa ne matukan motocin direbobi ne ba su su ka mallake su ba. [166]

#: or bought on credit by people not earning very much. [167] <> Ko kuma talakawa ne da suka sayi motar bashi. [168]

#: Stefan Trautmann from Heidelberg University tried to avoid these uncertainties by using an authoritative survey of 9,000 people, conducted four times a year in the Netherlands. [169] <> Stefan Trautmann na jamiar Heidelberg ya yi kokarin kaucewa wadannan rudanin inda ya yi amfani da sakamakon nazarin mutane 9,000 da ake gudanarwa a hukumance a kasar Netherlands sau hudu a shekara. [170]

#: He found that people with higher socio-economic status seemed to be more independent and less engaged with other people. [171] <> Ya gano cewa masu kudi sun fi dogaro da kansu tare da rashin shiga harkokin jamaa. [172]

#: But when they played games of financial trust, richer players were no more likely to betray their opponents than poorer ones. [173] <> Sai dai kuma lokacin da ya gwada su a wasannin da suka shafi rike amanar kudi, bai samu wani bambancin cin amana tsakanin masu kudi da talakawa ba. [174]

#: The studies examining altruistic behaviour seem contradictory, [175] <> Da alama dai sakamakon nazarce-nazarcen da ke gwada halayyar taimakon alumma tsakanin masu kudi da talakawa sun ci karo da juna. [176]

#: so how about some hard figures on giving to charity? [177] <> To ina labarin alkaluman kididdigar adadin kudaden da ake bayarwa sadaka? [178]

#: Is Warren Buffetthe billionaire whos pledged to give 99% of his wealth away[179] <> Shin Warren Buffetbiloniyan da ya yi alkawarin bayar da fiye da kaso 99 na dukiyarsa[180]

#: a rare exception or do richer people give away a higher proportion of their salaries on average? [181] <> ya fita daban ne ko kuma masu kudi sun fi bada kaso mai tsoka na dukiyarsu a matsayin sadaka? [182]

#: Most people are willing to part with just 2.3% of their earnings for charity (Credit: Alamy) [183] <> Akasarin mutane ba su da mu ba su ba da kashi 2.3 na kudin da su ke samu a matsayin sadaka [184]

#: To take this into account, researchers at Boston College [185] <> Masu bincike a kwalejin Boston [186]

#: looked across income bands starting at $10,000 and going right up to $300,000, [187] <> sun tattara wadannan alkalumma tun daga masu samun $10,000 a shekara zuwa masu $300,000, [188]

#: finding that the average percentage of income given to charity in the US is remarkably constant at roughly 2.3%. [189] <> inda su ka gano cewa kowanne rukuni na alummar kasar Amurka na bayar da kaso 2.3 na kudin shigarsu a matsayin sadaka. [190]

#: But when you look at the very top earners, the 2% earning more than $300,000, they give away on average 4.4% of their income. [191] <> Amma masu kudin kololuwa, wadanda ke samun fiye da $300,000 a shekara, su na ba da akalla 4.4 na kudinsu ne a matsayin sadaka. [192]

#: So, as a group, the super-rich could lay claim to being more generous in their charitable giving. [193] <> Don haka masu tsananin kudi za su iya cewa sun fi kowa ba da sadaka. [194]

#: All in all, the Boston research would appear to suggest that the rich are neither more generous nor stingier than the rest of usexcept at the top end. [195] <> Wannan bincike na Boston na nuna cewa sadakar masu kudi bata gaza ba kuma bata dara ba idan aka kwatanta da ta sauran jamaa. Sai dai masu kudin da ke matakin kololuwa. [196]

#: You could argue that theyre better able to afford it, but at least they make the decision to do it.   [197] <> Ka na iya cewa ai su ba za su ji ciwon fitarsu ba, amma dai ai ganin dama su ka yi su ka bayar. [198]

#: So the next time you notice someone rich who seems slow to pay their share at the bar, maybe its just them and its not that their money has made them mean. [199] <> Don haka nan gaba, idan ka lura mai kudin majalisarku baya azamar biya muku kudin abin motsa baki, ka sani cewa mai yiwuwa ne ba kudi ne ya sa shi rowa ba; dama dabiarsa ce. [200]

#: The research does reveal plenty of generosity among the rich, but perhaps the lesson is to guard against behaving with a sense of entitlement, particularly when playing Monopoly. [201] <> Bincike dai ya nuna cewa masu kudi na sadaka sosai, amma darasin da ke ciki shi ne a kaucewa son-kai, musamman ma idan ana wasan Monopoly. [202]