bbchausa verticals/053 protect the mind from bias

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#: How curiosity can protect the mind from bias [1] <> Neman sanin abubuwa ya kan sanya mutum guje wa son rai [2]

#: Neither intelligence nor education can stop you from forming prejudiced opinions[3] <> Tarin ilimi da yawan fasaha ba sa hana mu rike ra'ayoyi na son rai - [4]

#: but an inquisitive attitude may help you make wiser judgements. [5] <> amma budaddiyar zuciya mai neman sanin gaskiya na iya yi mana garkuwa daga bin yarima a sha kida. [6]

#: Ask a left-wing Brit [7] <> Idan ka tambayi duk wani mai ra'ayin kawo sauyi a Burtaniya [8]

#: what they believe about the safety of nuclear power, [9] <> dangane da ra'ayinsa game da makamashin nukiliya, [10]

#: and you can guess their answer. [11] <> kafin ya furta jawabi ka san mai zai ce. [12]

#: Ask a right-wing American [13] <> Idan kuma ka tambayi dan ra'ayin rikau na kasar Amurka ra'ayinsa [14]

#: about the risks posed by climate change, [15] <> game da barazanar sauyin yanayi, [16]

#: and you can also make a better guess than if you didnt know their political affiliation. [17] <> shi ma ka san jawabin da zai bayar tun kafin ya budi bakinsa. [18]

#: Issues like these feel like they should be informed by science, [19] <> Kamata ya yi a ce ilimin kimiyya shi ke sarrafa ra'ayoyinmu game da irin wadannan batutuwa [20]

#: not our political tribes, [21] <> ba akidarmu ta siyasa ba. [22]

#: but sadly, thats not what happens. [23] <> Sai dai kuma ba haka lamarin ke kasancewa ba. [24]

#: Psychology has long shown that [25] <> Tuni dai ilimin halayyar dan Adam ya nuna cewa [26]

#: education and intelligence wont stop your politics from shaping your broader worldview, [27] <> iliminmu da fasaharmu ba sa hana akidar siyasa ta yi tasiri kan ra'ayinmu, [28]

#: even if those beliefs do not match the hard evidence. [29] <> ko da kuwa bamu da wata gamsasshiyar hujja ta kankame wannan akida. [30]

#: Instead, your ability to weigh up the facts [31] <> Maimakon haka ikon iya kallon abubuwa daga bangarori da dama tare da tsayar da ra'ayi bisa hujja [32]

#: may depend on a less well-recognised traitcuriosity. [33] <> ya dogara ne kan wani dabi'a da muke raina wa wato son sanin kwakwaf. [34]

#: The political lens [35] <> Mahangar siyasa [36]

#: There is now a mountain of evidence [37] <> Akwai tarihin hujjoji [38]

#: to show that politics [39] <> da ke nuna cewa tasirin akidar siyasa [40]

#: doesnt just help predict peoples views [41] <> bai tsaya kan ra'ayoyinmu [42]

#: on some scientific issues; [43] <> game da batutuwan da su ka danganci kimiyya ba, [44]

#: it also affects how they interpret new information. [45] <> har ma da yadda mu ke fassara sababbin bayanai. [46]

#: This is why it is a mistake [47] <> Don haka kuskure ne [48]

#: to think that you can somehowcorrectpeoples views on an issue [49] <> ka yi tsammanin za ka iya sauya ra'ayin mutane [50]

#: by giving them more facts, [51] <> ta hanyar ba su sababbin hujjoji, [52]

#: since study after study has shown [53] <> kasancewar nazarurruka da dama sun nuna [54]

#: that people have a tendency to selectively reject facts that dont fit with their existing views. [55] <> cewa mutane na dabi'ar watsi da duk wata sabuwar hujja da ba ta dace da ra'ayoyinsu ba. [56]

#: This leads to the odd situation that people who are most extreme in their anti-science views[57] <> Wannan ya sa mutanen da su ka fi kafewa wurin rike ra'ayin da ya sabawa ilimin kimiyya[58]

#: for example skeptics of the risks of climate change[59] <> misali wadanda ba su amince da barazanar sauyin yanayi ba[60]

#: are more scientifically informed than those who hold anti-science views but less strongly. [61] <> sun fi wadanda su ke da sassaukar adawa da lamarin tarin sanin ilimin kimiyya. [62]

#: But smarter people shouldnt be susceptible to prejudice swaying their opinions, right? [63] <> Amma ai son rai ba ya tasiri wurin saita ra'ayin masu kokari ko? [64]

#: Wrong. [65] <> Ba haka bane. [66]

#: Other research shows that people with the most education, [67] <> Wani binciken ya nuna cewa mutanen da suka fi tarin ilimi, [68]

#: highest mathematical abilities, [69] <> da kwarewa a fannin lissafi, [70]

#: and the strongest tendencies to be reflective about their beliefs [71] <> da kuma yawan nazari mai zurfi game da akidunsu [72]

#: are the most likely to resist information which should contradict their prejudices. [73] <> sun fi tsananin kin amincewa da sababbin bayanan da suka saba wa son ransu. [74]

#: People who have the facility for deeper thought about an issue [75] <> Wato mutanen da ke da zurfin tunani, [76]

#: can use those cognitive powers to justify what they already believe [77] <> su na da karfin kwakwalwar da za su kare ra'ayoyinsu [78]

#: and find reasons to dismiss apparently contrary evidence. [79] <> tare da yin watsi da duk wani batu da ya saba wa ra'ayinsu komai ingancin hujjarsa. [80]

#: Its a messy picture, and at first looks like a depressing one for those who care about science and reason. [81] <> Wannan dai labari ne mara dadi ga mutanen da su ka damu da ilimin kimiyya da kuma aiki da kwakwalwa. [82]

#: A glimmer of hope can be found in new research from a collaborative team of [83] <> Sai dai kuma akwai dan abin faranta rai daga wani sabon bincike [84]

#: philosophers, [85] <> da wasu masanan falsafa, [86]

#: film-makers and psychologists led by Dan Kahan of Yale University. [87] <> da ilimin halayyar dan Adam da kuma masu shirya fim karkashin jagorancin Dan Kahan na jami'ar Yale. [88]

#: Kahan and his team [89] <> Kahan da tawagarsa [90]

#: were interested in politically biased information processing, [91] <> sun yi bincike ne kan yadda akidar siyasa ke tasiri game da yadda muke sarrafa sababbin bayanai, [92]

#: but also in studying the audience for scientific documentaries and using this research to help film-makers. [93] <> da kuma nazarin masu kallon finafinan kimiyya domin taimakawa masu shirya fim. [94]

#: They developed two scales. [95] <> Sun samar da ma'aunai guda biyu. [96]

#: The first measured a persons scientific background, [97] <> Na farko ya auna ilimin kimiyyar da mutane ke da shi [98]

#: a fairly standard set of questions asking about knowledge of basic scientific facts and methods, [99] <> ta hanyar yin tambayoyi game da sanin batutuwan kimiyya, hanyoyin binciken kimiyya, [100]

#: as well as quantitative judgement and reasoning. [101] <> da kuma yadda ake tantance bayanai. [102]

#: This second scale was also innovative in how they measured scientific curiosity. [103] <> Ma'auni na biyu kuma ya auna yadda mutanen ke da sha'awar sanin batutuwan da suka danganci kimiyya. [104]

#: As well as asking some questions, [105] <> Baya ga tambayoyin kai tsaye [106]

#: they also gave people choices about what material to read as part of a survey about reactions to news. [107] <> ma'aunin kuma kan bai wa mutane zabi game da irin labaran da ya kamata a sa a nazarin auna ra'ayin jama'a game da labarai. [108]

#: If an individual chooses to read about science stories rather than sports or politics, [109] <> Mutumin da ya zabi labaran da su ka danganci kimiyya maimakon siyasa ko wasanni, [110]

#: their corresponding science curiosity score was marked up. [111] <> sai a kara masa maki a ma'aunin neman sanin ilimin kimiyya. [112]

#: Armed with their scales, [113] <> Bayan da su ka sami wadannan ma'aunan, [114]

#: the team then set out to see how they predicted peoples opinions on public issues which should be informed by science. [115] <> masu binciken sun gwada ra'ayoyin al'umma game da batutuwan da suka shafi kimiyya. [116]

#: With the scientific knowledge scale [117] <> Da su ka yi amfani da ma'auni na farko, [118]

#: the results were depressingly predictable. [119] <> sakamakon da su ka samu ya nuna cewa ra'ayin siyasa ya na da matukar tasiri. [120]

#: So, curiosity might just save us from using science to confirm our identity as members of a political tribe. [121] <> Don haka son sanin kwakwaf, na iya tsare mu daga amfani da ilimin kimiyya wurin tabbatar da ra'ayoyinmu na siyasa. [122]

#: It also shows that to promote a greater understanding of public issues, [123] <> Haka kuma domin habaka fahimtar abubuwan da su ka shafi al'umma, [124]

#: it is as important for educators to try and convey their excitement about science and the pleasures of finding out stuff, as it is to teach people some basic curriculum of facts. [125] <> ya na da matukar muhimmanci ga masu koyarwa su yi kokarin ganin sun sa wa dalibansu sha'awar sanin abubuwan da suka shafi kimiyya ba wai kawai su haddace sakamakon bincike ba. [126]