bbchausa verticals/079-the-insect-that-loves-having-sex

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--[[bbchausa_verticals/079-the-insect-that-loves-having-sex|bbchausa_verticals/079]]

1. http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20140929-the-insect-that-loves-having-sex 1. http://www.bbc.com/hausa/mujalla-39788188
2. The insect that loves having sex 2. N/A
3. Obscure world records: which is the most promiscuous female insect of all? 3. Ka san baiwar tamatar kudan zuma?
4. When it comes to sex, 4. Idan ana maganar saduwa
5. we tend to see the male of the species as the most promiscuous. 5. ce ta namiji da mace tsakanin kowace halitta muna daukar namiji da cewa shi ne ya fi yawan sha'awa.
6. Yet, as the story of the record-breaking [en.wikt] honeybee shows us, 6. Amma kuma kamar yadda labarin bajintar kudan zuma ya nuna mana,
7. females can be just as likely to play the sex game. 7. ga alama mata ne za su ciri tuta a wannan fage.
8. We know that male animals seek to mate with multiple females to increase their chances of reproductive success. 8. Mun san cewa mazajen dabbobi suna son saduwa da mata da yawa domin samun haihuwa da yawa.
9. And we think that females are naturally pickier 9. Kuma muna daukar cewa mata sun fi tsantseni
10. because they invest more energy in 10. saboda sun fi mayar da hankali wajen
11. producing offspring 11. haihuwar 'ya'ya
12. and do not increase their chances of reproducing 12. kuma ba sa kara damarsu
13. by having more than one partner. 13. ta hayayyafa domin yawanci suna zama ne da namiji daya.
14. These are among the most deeply entrenched concepts of evolutionary biology. 14. Wadannan na daga cikin muhimman batutuwan da nazarin samuwar halitta ya mayar da hankali a kai.
15. They're also way off the mark. 15. Kuma su ma sun kauce hanya ko kuma a ce ba su fahimci lamarin ba.
16. The myth of the ardent, 16. Labarin nazariyyar halin halittu
17. promiscuous male and the coy, 17. da ke nuna cewa namiji hariji ne
18. choosy female 18. mace kuwa tana da son zabi ko tsantseni
19. is based on what some have called the Darwin-Bateman paradigm. 19. ya dogara ne kan abin wasu suka kira nazariyyar Darwin da Bateman.
20. In The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, Charles Darwin, 20. A wani littafi da ya rubuta (The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex), Charles Darwin
21. one of the founding fathers of the theory of evolution, 21. daya daga cikin wadanda suka kirkiro nazariyyar asalin halitta,
22. described how males had 22. ya bayyana yadda maza suke da
23.  “strong passionsandeagerly pursuefemales. 23. “sha'awa sosaikuma suke bin mata sosai.
24. “The female, on the other hand, with the rarest exceptions,” he wrote, 24. Su kuma matan in banda kadan daga cikinsu ya ce,
25. “is coy, and may often be seen endeavouringto escape the male”. 25. su na da yanga da jan hankali kuma yawanci sai a dauka suna son gudun namiji ne.
26. In 1948 English geneticist Angus John Bateman published 26. A 1948 masanin kimiyyar kwayoyin halitta na Ingila Angus John Bateman ya wallafa
27. a now famous experiment 27. abin da a yanzu aka fi sani da gwajin
28. in which equal numbers of male and female fruit flies were placed in bottles. 28. da aka samu yawan mata da maza daidai na wasu kwari (fruit flies) wadanda aka sa su a kwalabe.
29. He chose flies with mutations such as curly wings, 29. Masanin ya zabi kwari ko kudajen da suke da wasu kamanni kamar fuka-fukai da suka dan nade
30. small eyes 30. da kananan idanuwa
31. and thick bristles, 31. da kuma gashi mai kauri
32. to give him a way to determine the parentage of the resulting offspring. 32. domin ba shi damar zaben irin 'ya'yan da za su haifa.
33. Bateman concluded 33. Daga nan sai Bateman ya ayyana cewa
34. there was greater variability in both reproductive and mating success among males than females, and that 34. akwai bambanci mai yawa tsakanin maza da mata a fannin haihuwa da saduwa.
35. while mating with multiple partners increased the chances of a male passing on his genes, this was not the case for females. 35. Yayin da saduwa da yawan mata ke kara damar yuwuwar yada kwayoyin halitta ko kamannin namijin ba haka lamarin yake ba a bangaren mata.
36. These ideas have strongly influenced evolutionary biologists for decades. 36. Wannan nazarin ya yi tasiri sosai a kan masana kimiyyar samuwar halittu har tsawon shekaru gommai.
37. Of course some pointed to examples of species 37. Ba shakka wasu daga cikinsu sun nuna misalan yadda wasu jinsun halittun
38. in which observations showed the Darwin-Bateman sex roles were reversed, 38. inda nazari ya nuna an samu akasin abin da Darwin da Bateman suna nuna na rawar da maza da mata ke takawa a bangaren jima'i.
39. but perhaps surprisingly it was not until two papers published in 2007 and 2012 that researchers showed Bateman’s conclusions were based on flawed experimental and statistical methods. 39. Amma kuma ba a kai ga gane cewa nazariyyar Bateman ta dogara ne ga gwaji da kuma alkaluman da ke da matsala ko aka yi kura-kurai ba, har sai bayan da aka wallafa wasu kasidu biyu a shekara ta 2007 da 2012.
40. Patricia Adair Gowaty, of the University of California, Los Angeles, 40. Patricia Adair Gowaty ta jami'ar California a Los Angeles
41. repeated his original experiment. 41. ta maimaita ainahin irin nazarin da ya yi.
42. She pointed out his methods could only identify parentage 42. Ta nuna cewa tsarinsa kawai zai iya nuna iyaye ne
43. if offspring had the mutations of both its father and mother, 43. idan 'ya'ya suna da kamanni na uwa da uba,
44. and his data would only be accurate 44. kuma bayanansa ko alkaluma za su kasance daidai ne kawai
45. if such offspring were just as viable as those with one or no mutationswhich they werent. 45. idan wadannan 'ya'ya suka kasance suna da inganci kamar wadanda suke da kamanni daya ko kuma babu wannan klamanni, wanda kuma ba haka suke ba.
46. All of which meant Bateman’s results and the conclusions based on them were wrong. 46. Kuma dukkanin wannan na nuna cewa alkaluma da sakamakon nazarin Bateman ba daidai suke ba.
47. Which brings us neatly to honey bees. 47. Wannan cikin sauki shi ya kawo mu kan kudan zuma.
48. Early in life, queens make mating flights during which they mate with multiple drones that die once they have deposited their sperm. 48. A farkon rayuwarsu, sarauniyar kudan zuma tana saduwa da mazaje daban-daban wadanda suke mutuwa da zarar sun zuba maniyyinsu.
49. They store and use the sperm throughout her life. 49. Sarauniyar tana adana wannan maniyyi ta yi ta amfani da shi har tsawon rayuwarta.
50. Worker bees in the hives of queens that have had more partners have been shown to produce more honey comb. 50. Su kuma matan kudan zuman masu aiki (worker bee) wadanda suke saduwa da namiji fiye da daya sun fi samar da zuma.
51. This promiscuity is believed to help improve resistance to disease by boosting genetic diversity. 51. Ana ganin wannan harijanci (saduwa da maza da yawa) yana taimaka musu wajen samun kariya daga cututtuka ta hanyar bunkasa kwayoyin halittarsu.
52. So it is unsurprising that when Hector Cabrera-Mireles, 52. Saboda haka ba abin mamaki ba ne a lokacin da Hector Cabrera-Mireles,
53. then at the University of Florida, 53. wanda a lokacin yake jami'ar Florida
54. reviewed previous studies 54. ya sake bibbiyar nazarce-nazarcen da aka yi a baya
55. to identify the most polyandrous insect - the species in which the female copulates with the most males - he focused on honey bees. 55. domin gano tamatar kwaron da ta fi saduwa da maza ya mayar da hankali kan kudan zuma.
56. The European honey bee 56. Tamatar kudan zuma na Turai
57. was found to mate up to 20 times and the Asiatic honey bee up to 30 times. 57. an gano tana saduwa da namiji sau 20 yayin da ta yankin Asia ta ke yin jima'i sau 30.
58. However Cabrera-Mireles determined that the Apis dorsata, 58. Sai dai Dakta Cabrera-Mireles ya ayyana cewa tamatar
59. the giant honey bee of South and Southeast Asia, 59. katon kudan zuma na Kudu da Kudu maso gabashin Asiya
60. was the most polyandrous of all, with one DNA fingerprinting studying determining that females had up to 53 mates. 60. ita tafi saduwa da maza da yawa, inda a bincikensa ya gano cewa mata suna saduwa da maza har 53.
61. The female cobalt milkweed beetle has been recorded mating up to 60 times, 61. Sai dai kuma a wani nazarin mai binciken ya gano cewa tamatar wani nau'in buzuzu da ake kira 'cobalt milkweed' da Ingilishi tana jima'i har sau 60,
62. but was disqualified by Cabrera-Mireles because this figure included multiple matings with the same male. 62. sai dai masanin bai zabe ta ba a matsayin wadda ta fi yawan jima'i ba domin takan sadu da namiji daya fiye da sau daya.