bbchausa verticals/082-baby-learning

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  1. --[[bbchausa_verticals/082-baby-learning]]
  2. Alignment-in-progress
  3. http://www.bbc.co.uk/earth/story/20160704-baby-animals-start-learning-before-they-are-even-born
  4. http://www.bbc.com/hausa/mujalla/vert_earth/2016/08/160823_verticals_earth_babies_start_learnin_before_they_are_even_born

2. Babies start learning before they are even born

2. Jarirai na fara koyon darasi tun ba a haife su ba
3. From cuttlefish learning to recognise prey before they hatch, to birds memorising "passwords" in the egg to form a bond with their parents, it is clear that schooling begins before birth 3. Kama daga kifin da ke gane abincinsa tun kafin a kyankyashe kwansa zuwa ga tsuntsayen da kan haddace kukan iyayensu tun su na cikin kwai, a bayyane take jarirai na koyon ilimi tukafin a haife su.
4. By Lesley Evans Ogden 5 July 2016 4. 23 Agusta 2016
5. While pregnant with my first child, 5. Lokacin da na ke dauke da cikin dana na fari,
6. I heard unsolicited advice typical of that showered upon expectant mothers. 6. an bani shawarwari da dama, irin wadanda akan bai wa mata masu ciki.
7. "Don't eat spicy food," and, 7. “Kar ki ci abinci mai yaji,” kuma
8. "Avoid garlic, especially when you're breast-feeding." 8. “ki guji tafarnuwa, musamman lokacin da ki ke shayarwa.”
9. But as a spicy food-lover I was sceptical, and reluctant to take heed. 9. Sai dai a matsayina na mai tsananin cin yaji, ban dauki shawarar ba.
10. Human cuisines vary all over the world. 10. Na ga dai kowanne sashe na duniya da irin abincinsu,
11. Surely babies born to mothers in some of the world's spice capitals must learn to get used to breast milk with more flavoursome notes? 11. don haka nake ganin aiyayan da aka haifa a garuruwan da iyayensu ba sa rabo da tafarnuwa, haka su ke shan nono ba tare da wata damuwa ba.
12. It was pure speculation on my part, 12. Wannan dai zallan hasashe ne daga bangare na,
13. but my personal experiment 13. amma gwajin da na yi
14. played out with an unscientific sample size of just oneoffered some support. 14. ta hanyar amfani da samfur daya tak wanda bai cika kaaidar binciken kimiyya baya bani kwarin gwiwa kan hasashen.
15. My tiny experimental subject expressed his prenatally-learned love for Thai curry and garlic-spiced breast milk by way of contented guzzling, then guzzling some more. 15. Dan jaririn na wa ya nuna cewa ya saba da tafarnuwa tun ya na ciki ta hanyar zukar nono ba tare da wani gwalangwaso ba.
16. Some more rigorous scientific research also supports the idea that 16. Masana kimiyya ma sun gudanar da binciken da ke nuna cewa
17. babies learn taste preferences before they are born. 17. jarirai kan koyi fifita dandano tun kafin a haife su.
18. In fact, 18. A gaskiya ma,
19. prenatal learning is not limited to taste. 19. abubuwan da jarirai kan koya a ciki sun wuce dandano kurum.
20. Nor is it limited to humans. 20. Ba kuma jariran mutane ne kawai su ke fara darasin rayuwa tun daga ciki ba.
21. What is emerging from the experiments is 21. Abinda binciken ke nunawa shi ne,
22. evidence that all sorts of animal species 22. jinsin dabbobi da dama,
23. great and small 23. manyansu da kananansu
24. learn about the world 24. kan koyi darussa da yawa game da duniya
25. before entering it by paying attention to the 25. kafin su shigota ta hanyar laakari da
26. tastes, 26. dandano,
27. smells, 27. kamshi,
28. sounds 28. muryoyi,
29. and even sightsavailable 29. har ma da abubuwan da su ke gani
30. pre-birth. 30. kafin a haife su.
31. So can a zest for garlic be learned prenatally? 31. Idan haka ne, me ye gaskiyar ana iya koyon son tafarnuwa tun a ciki?
32. Peter Hepper of the University of Belfast 32. Peter Hepper na jamiar Belfast
33. decided to find out. 33. ya yi kokarin samo amsa.
34. He and colleagues 34. Shi da abokan aikinsa
35. tested children born of mothers that often versus never consumed garlic during late pregnancy. 35. sun gwada jariran da iyayensu ke yawan cin tafarnuwa da wadanda ba sa ci sam a watanni ukun karshe na cikinsu.
36. His study involved just 33 children, 36. Binciken na sa ya kunshi yara 33 ne kawai,
37. but his results hint that a learned prenatal preference for garlic was maintained even years later, 37. amma sakamakon ya nuna cewa yara kan ci gaba da rike dandanon da suka koyi amfani da shi bayan shekaru da dama,
38. as seen in a willingness of kids born to garlic-consuming mothers to eat garlic-flavoured potatoes when they were aged eight or nine. 38. kasancewaryayan matan da ke yawan cin tafarnuwa sun fi son abinci mai tafarnuwa da aka jarrabasu bayan shekaru 10.
39. How do human babies taste food in the uterus? 39. Ta yaya jarirai ke dandana abinci a cikin mahaifa?
40.  There are several possible routes to flavoured womb service. 40. Akwai hanyoyi da dama.
41. One idea, explains Hepper, 41. Hanya ta farko, a cewar Hepper,
42. is that flavours pass into the amniotic fluid, 42. ita ce dandano ya shiga cikin ruwan mahaifa,
43. so when the foetus starts to swallow 43. don haka lokacin da dan tayi ya faru kurba
44. which it does from about the tenth week of development 44. tun daga mako na goma
45. "it will experience the flavours as they come through". 45. “ya kan ji dandanon da ke cikin ruwan”.
46. Flavours might also bypass the mouth and pass directly into the foetus's blood through its mother's blood. 46. Ba kuma sai ta baki kawai dan da ke ciki ke jin dandano ba, domin dandano kan shiga cikin jinin jariri kai tsaye daga jinin uwarsa.
47. This might be particularly true of garlic, 47. Tafarnuwa ce kuwa tafi dacewa da wannan hanyar
48. which can linger in our systems for hours after a meal 48. domin ta kan jima a cikin jininmu bayan cin abinci,
49. explaining why people close by can smell the stuff on us even the next day. 49. abinda ya sa ke nan wadanda ke kusa da mu ke iya jin warinta a jikinmu har washe garin cinta.
50. It is not just strong flavours like garlic that can influence foetal tastes. 50. Amma fa ba dandano mai irin karfin tafarnuwa ne kurum kan yi tasiri kan dandanon da dan tayi ke so ba.
51. The same may be true for subtle flavours too. 51. Har ma da mara sa karfin.
52. In an experiment at Pennsylvania's Monell Chemical Senses Center (and sponsored by a baby food company), researchers gauged babies' reaction to plain versus carrot-flavoured cereal. 52. A wani gwaji da aka gudanar a Pennsylvania, Amurka, masu bincike sun auna tsakanin abinci mai dandanon karas da mara dandano, wane jarirai suka fi kauna.
53. Some of the babies' mothers 53. Wasu daga cikin iyayen jariran dai
54. had spent the last trimester of pregnancy 54. sun kwashe watannin karshen cikinsu
55. and first months of breast-feeding drinking carrot juice and water, 55. da kuma watannin farkon shayar da jariransu su na shan ruwa da lemon karas,
56. while other mothers had stuck to water alone. 56. yayinda daya rukunin matan ke shan ruwa zalla.
57. Based on the extent to which the five- to six-month-old babies grimaced at their plain versus carrot-flavoured cereal, the researchers concluded that a keenness for carrots can be learned prenatally from their carrot-infused amniotic fluid, or postnatally from the carrot-flavoured milk they drink. 57. Masu binciken sun gano cewayayan da iyayensu ke shan lemon karas sun fi son abincin jarirai mai dandanon karas, wadanda iyayensu ba su sha ba, su ma ba su so ba.
58. This might all seem a bit trivial, 58. Wannan zancen sai ku ji kamar shirme,
59. but it is really not. 59. amma ya na da muhimmanci kwarai.
60. In mammals in general, taste and smell seem to be important triggers that babies look for before initiating suckling. 60. A tsakanin dabbobin da ke shayarwa, dandano da kamshi kan taka muhimmiyar rawa wurin karbar nono ga jarirai.
61. Unsurprisingly, then, prenatal flavour learning is widespread across mammals. It is seen in 61. Wannan dabiar kuma tabbas haka take ga
62. rabbits, 62. zomaye,
63. rats, 63. gafiyoyi,
64. dogs 64. karnuka
65. and cats, for instance. 65. da maguna.
66. It may have evolved because it is important in steering us towards safe foods, 66. Ba mamaki hakan na faruwa ne domin taimaka mana gane abinci mara hatsari,
67. and in offspring recognition of their mother. 67. sannan kumayaya su gane mahaifiyarsu.
68. "It makes sense," 68. “Daidai ne,”
69. says Hepper, 69. in ji Hepper,
70. "to be programmed to respond to our primary caregiver, the one who is programmed to care for us." 70. “a halicce mu na da dabiar gane babbar mai bamu kulawa, wacce ita ma aka dabiantar da ita kan kulawa da mu.”
71. These prenatally-primed systems of mother-child recognition 71. Wannan tsarin na gane uwa ga jaririn da ba a ma haife shi ba,
72. may be especially important 72. na da matukar muhimmanci musamman
73. in the unfortunate species that are exploited by freeloading members of another species 73. a jinsin dabbobin da wasu jinsunan ke yaudara, su dora musu nauyin kula da na suyayan,
74. cuckoos, for instancewho have no intention of caring for their own young. 74. misali tsuntsuwar nan dangin benu da turawa ke kira cuckoo.
75. The fairy wren is one of the targets of the Horsfield's Bronze-cuckoo. 75. Jinsin benun da ake kira wren, su ne cuckoo ke yaudara.
76. This cuckoo will lay an egg in a fairy wren's nest given the chance 76. Tsuntsuwar cuckoo kan dasa kwanta a shekar wren
77. – but prenatal learning 77. – amma darasin da tsutsayen kan koya tun su na cikin kwai
78. might help the fairy wren 78. kan taimakawa tsutsunwar wren
79. work out that it has been duped. 79. ta gano an damfareta.
80. As for how this fairy wren behaviour was discovered, "it was a bit of an accident", says Diane Colombelli-Négrel of Flinders University in Adelaide, Australia. 80. Diane Colombelli-Négrel ta jamiar Flinders da ke Adelaide, Australia ce ta gano hakan.
81. During a study on predators, 81. A wani bincike da ta gudanar game da dabbobi masu cinyeyayan tsuntsuye,
82. she was recording sounds 82. ta na nadar sautukan da ke fitowa
83. from the nests of superb fairy wrens (Malurus cyaneus) round the clock. 83. daga shekar tsuntsayen wren yini da kwana.
84. Later, when reviewing the recordings, 84. Lokacin da take sauraron saututtukan da ta nada,
85. she noticed that females 85. sai ta lura cewa matan tsuntayen
86. were producing special calls during incubation. 86. kan fitar da wani sauti na musamman a lokacin da su ke kwanci.
87. This seemed odd 87. Wannan sai ya bata mamaki
88. for a mother bird sitting on eggs, which would be expected to keep quiet to avoid attracting the attentions of a predator. 88. ganin uwar da ke kwanci kuma take kokarin tsareyayanta daga masu fyauce su, bai kama ta a ce ta na fitar da sautin da zai iya jan hankalin masu cinyayan ba.
89. Intrigued, Colombelli-Négrel compared 89. Amma da Colombelli-Négrel ta kwatanta
90. the mother's incubation calls with the "feed me, feed me" begging calls her chicks made once they had hatched. Comparing one to the other, she was struck by the similarity. 90. kukan da tsuntsuwa mai kwance ke yi, da kukan da kyankyasassunyayan ke yi idan su na jin yunwa, sai ta same su iri daya sak.
91. Could mums be calling to their chicks while they were still inside their eggs, to teach them a signature "feed me" call they could use after hatching? 91. To ko dai kukan da masu kwancin ke yi, darasi su ke bai wayayansu dake cikin kwai, domin su koyi irin kukan da za su yi bayan kyankyasa idan su na bukatar abinci?
92. In order to test that idea 92. Domin gwada wannan hasashe
93. and show that the mother-like chick calls were not simply some genetic programme with nothing to do with in-egg learningColombelli-Négrel and collaborators conducted a cross-fostering experiment. 93. tare da tabbatar da cewa kamanceciniyar kukanyayan tsuntsuwa na da uwarsu dalilin koyo ne ba wai saboda tsarin kwayoyin halitta ba, sai Colombelli-Négrel da abokan aikinta su ka gwada sauyawa iyayeyayan da za su raina.
95. They swapped eggs between nests 94.  
96. so they could see if chicks learned calls that more closely resembled their biological or foster mother. 95. Su ka yi musayar kwayaye tsakanin shekar tsuntsayen
97. The chick calls showed a greater similarity to those of the bird that incubated them, not their genetic mother, 96. don ganin koyayan za su rinka yin irin kukan uwar da ta dasa kwansu ne ko kuma uwar da ta kyankyashe su.
98. providing evidence for inside-the-egg song learning. 97. Sakamakon sai ya nunayayan su na yin irin kukan tsuntsuwar da ta kyankyase su ne ba na wacce ta yi kwansu ba,
99. As Colombelli-Négrel's co-author Mark Hauber at Hunter College, New York, 98. abinda ke nuna cewa sun koyi kukan ne su na cikin kwai, a lokacin da su ke sauraronta yayin da take kwanci.
100. explains, the researchers also measured heart rate changes of developing birds inside the egg to explore whether they can learn to distinguish between different types of sound. 99. Abokin aikin Colombelli-Négrel, Mark Hauber da ke Hunter College, New York,
101. This confirmed, says Hauber, that "the embryo learns while inside the egg, before hatching". 100. ya bayyana cewa binciken na su ya kuma yi nazarin ko tsuntsaye na gane bambancin kukanyayansu?
102. Next they wanted to know if parents could distinguish subtle differences in chick calls. They tested parental responses to playbacks at the nest of begging calls from their own chicks, chicks from other nests, and calls from the Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo chicks. This cuckoo species sometimes plunks its own eggs into fairy wren nests to be unwittingly adopteda disastrous event for the fairy wrens, since the cuckoo chick that hatches will turf out all of its nest-mates, sentencing them to death, in order to rule the roost. 101. Sakamakon gwajin ya nuna cewa tsuntsaye su na amsa kukanyayansu fiye da nayayan wasu tsuntsayen da aka saka cikin shekarsu,
103. The parents were not easily fooled. They responded more strongly, bringing more food in response to calls from their own chicks. So fairy wrens, for now, appear to have gained the upper hand in their arms race with the cuckoos by teaching their unhatched chicks a vocal password. 102. abinda ke nuna cewa kukan da su ke koya wayayan da ke cikin kwai na tasiri wurin nuna musu wa za su ciyar. Binciken ya tabbatar musu da cewa jinsin tsuntsayen dangin benu da dama na da wannan dabia ta koyon sauti tun su na cikin kwai. Hakan ya sa su hasashen ko wannan dabiar ta yadu tsakanin wadansu dangin tsuntsayen kuma?
104. "The password allows you to live," says Hauber. "If you don't produce the password, the parents will feed you less," or desert the nest entirely to start again. 103. n/a
105. Recent work by Colombelli-Négrel, Hauber and colleagues suggests that closely related red-backed fairy wrens show prenatal vocal learning too. The researchers now find themselves wondering just how widespread this early learning really is. 104. n/a
106. They are not the first to wonder. 105. n/a
107. Research by Gilbert Gottlieb beginning in the 1970s showed that prenatal sound learning also occurs in ducklings. 106. Ba su su ka fara wannan tunanin ba.
108. More recent work, by Christopher Harshaw and Robert Lickliter at Indiana University, demonstrated, with an ugly-duckling-style experiment, that young northern bobwhites prefer the call of Japanese quail rather than that of their own species if they are played Japanese quail sounds while their eggs are in an incubator. 107. A shekarun 1970 Gilbert Gottlieb ya gudanar da binciken da ya nuna cewayayan agwagwi dayayan fakara ma na koyon sauti tun su na cikin kwai.
109. But apart from a handful of examples like these, the possibility that embryos pay attention to, and learn from, the sounds they hear has not yet been widely explored. 108. n/a
110. In one species though, sound exposure before birth has been studied, and debated, extensively. 109. Amma fa in ban da wadannan tsirarun manazartan, masana ba su mai da hankali sosai kan yaddayaya ke koyon ilimin sauti da kamshi da dandano tun kafin su zo duniya ba.
111. Are early sound preferences innate, or learned? In humans it seems to be a combination of both. 110. Halitta guda daya ce tak ta samu wannan tagomashi: mutum.
112. At New York University, psychologist Athena Vouloumanos is interested in how early in development humans start learning language. 111. Shin kwayoyin halitta ne ke sa jariran mutane son wasu sautuka ko kuma koya su ke tun su na cikin mahaifa?
113. It is tricky to test language learning in foetuses, she explains. 112. A jamiar New York, mai nazarin dabiar mutane, Athena Vouloumanos na gudanar da bincike kan yaddayayan mutum ke fara koyon yare.
114. Instead, people tend to focus on newborns, 113. Ta ce abu ne mai wuya a gwada fahimtar yare a tsakaninyan tayi.
115. and control for their prenatal exposure to see how it affects infants once they are born. 114. Don haka masana kan gudanar da binciken ne kan jarirai sabbin haihuwa
116. Vouloumanos has studied how newborn babies respond to human speech versus non-speech sounds. 115. tare da bambanta irin sautukan da suka saba da su kafin haihuwa don gano ko da akwai bambanci tsakaninsu bayan haihuwa.
117. Newborns spend a lot of their time asleep, "but one thing they are doing, because they better do it if they want to survive, is suck". So her team used babies' sucking responses to distinguish between prenatally-learned versus innate preferences for certain sounds 116. Vouloumanos ta nazarci martanin jarirai ga muryar mutane da kuma sautukan da ba muryar mutane ba.
118. What about music? 117. Binciken ya nuna cewa jarirai na fifita muryar mutane a kan sautukan da ban a mutum ba, dalilin kwayoyin halittarsu, amma kuma su na fifita harsunan da iyayensu ke magana da su fiye da wasu harsunan, abinda ke nuna koya su ka yi tun su na ciki.
119. Could foetuses learn melodies while they are still in the womb? 118. To ya batun kida kuma?
120. In a Finnish experiment, 119. Shinyan tayi a ciki kan koyi son kida?
121. one group of pregnant mothers listened to a melodya tape of "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star" – almost every day in their late pregnancy. 120. Wani gwaji da aka yi a Finland,
122. A second group did not listen to the melody. 121. wani rukunin mata masu ciki sun saurari kidanTwinkle Twinkle Little Stara kullum, cikin watanni ukun karshen cikinsu.
123. After the babies were born, researchers tested all babies' responses to subtle but deliberate melodic changes or "mistakes" in the familiar tune. 122. Wani rukunin dabam kuma ba su saurari kidan ba.
The babies are of course sleeping, says Minna Huotilainen at the University of Helsinki, who directed the study. "But we are recording the electroencephalogram, a continuous signal from different parts of the brain." 123. Da aka gwada kwakwalwar jariran da ka haifa lokacin da aka saka musu kidan, wadanda ke jin kidan a ciki kan nuna sun gane sautin yayin da wadanda ba su saba da shi ba kan yi biris da shi, a cewar Minna Huotilainen ta jamiar Helsinki.
124. For both the correct and incorrect notes, the brains of babies prenatally exposed to the melody had a stronger response than the unexposed babies, suggesting they had learned and remembered the melody during the foetal period. 124. n/a
125. One important implication of this discovery of very early sound learning 125. Tasirin wannan binciken
126. is the need to pay careful attention to the sound environment for babies born pre-term. 126. shi ne gano cewa wajibi a kula da saututtukan da bakwaini ke ji a lokacin da ake kula da su a asibiti.
127. When there is a lot of machine noise in the neonatal hospital environment, babies will learn those sounds, possibly at the expense of speech sounds. "This may contribute to later language learning problems," says Huotilainen. 127. A cewar Huotilainen, “idan akwai karar naurori da dama, yaran za su saba da wannan, har su fifita shi a kan muryoyin mutane, abinda zai iya haifar musu da matsalar kwarewa a magana nan gaba”.
128. Huotilainen is currently studying prematurely born babies receiving "kangaroo care" (worn by mothers in pouches) in groups that hear silence, speech, or soft lullabies, to see if certain environments might help them to develop their language faster. 128. Sai dai kuma Huotilainen na ganin babu wani amfani a sawayan tayi kida ta hanyar naurorin da ake tallatawa a yanzu, irinsu naurar da ake kafa wa a ciki ko kuma ake zurawa ta bakin mahaifa. Ta ceBabu wani amfani da su ke da shi sam.”
129. The tastes, smells and sounds that surround animals during their prenatal development are not the only senses they can learn from. 129. Dandano, kanshi, da saututtukan da ke tattare da dabbobi kafin a haife su, ba su ne kadai abubuwan da su ke koyo ba.
130. In cuttlefish, which hatch from eggs and then fend for themselves as youngsters, Ludovic Dickel has been studying how learning in the egg can extend to the sights cuttlefish see before they hatch. 130. Ludovic Dickel ya gudanar da bincike kan wata dabbar ruwa da ake kiracuttlefishda turanci, don ganin ko za ta iya koyon ilimi ta hanyar ganin kaguwa ba a kyankyashe kwanta ba.
131. Cuttlefish have a behavioural repertoire that is "one of the richest in the animal kingdom at hatching, a dream for a behavioural biologist," he says. His collaborative research has shown that as soon as the visual system of the cuttlefish is functional, about three weeks before hatching, they can learn from what they seethe equivalent of a human womb with a view. 131. n/a
132. In one experiment, 132. A wani gwajin,
133. Dickel and colleagues 133. Dickel da abokan aikisa
134. exposed some embryonic cuttlefish to 134. sun nuna wa kwayayencuttlefish
135. images of crabs 135. hotunan kaguwa
136. but none of the chemicals crabs release 136. ba tare da sinadiran da kaguwa ke fitarwa ba,
137. that might betray their smell or taste. 137. saboda ba sa son warinta ya yi tasiri a kan kwayayen.
138. These cuttlefish, upon hatching, had a greater preference for eating the tasty crustaceans than their peers who had not been exposed to visual cues before hatching. 138. Bayan da su ka kyankyashe, ‘cuttlefishdin da su ka kalli hoton kaguwa su na matsayin kwai sai su ka fi wadanda ba su ga hotonta ba zafin farautarta da cinyeta.
139. Even earlier, at four weeks before hatching, Dickel's team have discovered that cuttlefish can learn from touch and from chemical cues like the odour of a predator, the European sea bass. 139. Tun ana sauran makonni hudu kafin kyankyasa ma, ‘cuttlefishkan koyi warin kifayen da za su iya cinyesu, kuma ya guje su bayan kyankyasa.
140. That smell of fear, and the ability to learn from it, occurs in salamanders and frogs too. 140. Kwadi da kozaye ma kan koyi kanshin dabbobin da ke halaka su tun su na cikin kwai, domin su guje su lokacin da suka zama talibamban har zuwa cikar halittarsu.
141. Science is revealing that what we learn before entering the world may give us more of a head-start than once thought. 141. A takaice dai, ilimin kimiyya na nuna mana cewa abinda mu ka koya game da duniya kafin shigarta, na iya taimaka mana fiye da yadda mu ka zata a baya.