bbchausa verticals/083-inside-the-minds-of-the-dead

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  1. <small> --[[bbchausa_verticals/083-inside-the-minds-of-the-dead]]</small>
  2. Alignment-in-progress
  3. https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20140421-inside-the-minds-of-the-dead
  4. https://www.bbc.com/hausa/vert-fut-42184433 (related: https://www.bbc.com/hausa/vert-fut-42187735)
1. https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20140421-inside-the-minds-of-the-dead 1. https://www.bbc.com/hausa/vert-fut-42184433
2. Reading the minds of thedead 2. Ana iya gane aikin kwakwalwar matattu?
3. By Roger Highfield 21st April 2014 3. Daga Roger Highfield 4 Disamba 2017
4. Thousands of patients 4. Dubban marasa lafiya
5. remain trapped in a vegetative state between life and death. 5. na nan a dabaibayin langabun rashin sanin inda kansu yake, a yanayin rai kwakwai, mutu kwakwai (tsakanin rayuwa da mutuwa).
6. Three scientists are working to free them, as Roger Highfield reports. 6. Manyan masana kimiyya uku na kokarin ceto su, kamar yadda Roger ya kawo rahotanni al'amuran.
7. “Imagine you wake up, locked inside a box,” says Adrian Owen. 7. "Kaddara ka farka a cikin wani akwati, a cewar Adrian Owen.
8. "It's a perfect fit, down to every last one of your 8. "Ka ji garau tun daga
9. fingers 9. kan yatsun hannu
10. and toes. 10. zuwa yatsun kafa.
11. It's a strange 11. Lamarin ya yi bambarakwai
12. box 12. a akwati
13. because you can listen to absolutely everything going on around you, yet your voice cannot be heard. 13. tunda kana jin komai da ake yi a kewaye da kai, amma ba za a iya jin muryarka ba.
14. In fact, the box fits so tightly around your face and lips that you can't speak, or make a noise. 14. A gaskiya ma akwati garkame yake kam daure da fuskarka da lebanta ta yadda ba za ka iya magana ba ko wani surutu.
15. At first, this feels like a game. 15. Da farko, wannan al'amari ya yi kama da wasa.
16. Then reality sets in. 16. Sai batu na gaskiya.
17. You see and hear your family lamenting your fate. 17. Kana gani da jin yadda 'yan uwanka ke alhinin makomar da ka samu kanka.
18. You're too cold. 18. Ka daskare da sanyi.
19. Then too hot. 19. Sai kuma ka dumame da zafi.
20. You're always thirsty. 20. Ko da yaushe kana fama da kishirwa
21. The visits of your friends and family dwindle. 21. Ziyarar abokai da 'yan uwa sai ta ragu.
22.  Your partner moves on. And there's nothing you can do about it." 22. Abokin zamanka shi ma ya dakata. Kuma babu abin da za ka iya yi kan haka."
23. Owen and I are talking on Skype. 23. Ni da Owen muna tattaunawa a kafar sadarwa ta Skype.
24. Im sitting in London, UK, 24. Har yanzu ina nan a Landan, qasar Birtaniya,
25. and hes in another London 25. shi ma yana nan a Landan
26. three-and-a-half thousand miles away at the University of Western Ontario, Canada. 26. kimnanin mil dubu uku da rabi daga Jami'ar Western Ontario ta qasar Canada.
27. Owens reddish hair 27. Jan gashin Owen
28. and close-cropped beard 28. da gemunsa da aka daddatse
29. loom large on my screen 29. sun bayyana akan akwatin talabijin dina,
30. as he becomes animated describing the torment of those with no voice: his patients. 30. inda aka yi mini zayyanarsa tare da kwatanta mini yadda wadanda ba sa iya magana ke shan azaba: marasa lafiyar da yake kula da su.
31. People in avegetative state 31. Mutanen da "rashin lafiya ta langabar da su"
32. are awake yet unaware. 32. a farke suke ba tare da saninsu ba.
33. Their eyes can open and sometimes wander. 33. Idanunsu a bude har a wasu lokutan suka jujjuya.
34. They can smile, 34. Suna iya yin murmushi,
35. grasp anothers hand, 35. su kama hannun wani,
36. cry, 36. su yi kuka
37. groan or grunt. 37. ko gyaran murya.
38. But they are indifferent to a hand clap, 38. Sai dai motsin tafa hannu bai dame su ba,
39. unable to see or to understand speech. 39. ba sa iya gani ko fahimtar magana.
40. Their motions are not purposeful but reflexive. 40. Motsinsu ba da niyya ko manufa, sai dai kwatsam ya bijiro.
41. They appear to have shed their memories, 41. Alamu na nuna abin da ke damfare a kwakwalwarsu ya gushe,
42. emotions and intentions, 42. babu sosuwar zuciya ko kudura niyya,
43. those qualities that make each one of us an individual. 43. wasu dabi'u da suka ta'allaka a jikin daidaikunmu.
44. Their minds remain firmly shut. 44. Tunaninsu ya garkame gam.
45. Still, when their eyelids flutter open, 45. Har yanzu dai, idan idanunsu suka bude,
46. you are always left wondering if theres a glimmer of consciousness. 46. sai a barka da mamakin cewa akwai dan burbushin farkawa tattare da su.
47. A decade ago, 47. Shekaru goma baya,
48. the answer would have been a bleak and emphatic no. 48. amsar tambaya kan lamari kawai ba a bukatarta ko kuma a ce kawai a'a!
49. Not any longer. 49. Kada a sake bijiro da ita ko kadan,
50. Using brain scanners, 50. ta hanyar amfani da na'urar daukar hoton bibiyar kwakwalwa,
51. Owen has found that some may be trapped inside their bodies 51. Owen ya gano cewa wasu kawai a dabaibaye suke a daure cikin jikinsu,
52. yet able to think and feel to varying extents. 52. duk da haka suna iya yin tunani har su dan ji wani abu gwargwadon hali.
53. The number of patients with disorders of consciousness has soared in recent decades, 53. Yawan majiyatan da ke fama da matsalar kasa farfadowa suna karuwa a shekrun nan,
54. ironically, 54. wani abin mamakin ma shi ne
55. because doctors have steadily got better at saving patients with catastrophic injuries. 55. likitoci sun samu dabarun ceto marasa lafiyar da suka samu munanan raunuka.
56. Today, trapped, 56. A yau, majiyatan da jikinsu ke dabaibaye da
57. damaged 57. jagwabewa
58. and diminished minds 58. da tsukewar kwakwalwa
59. inhabit clinics and nursing homes worldwide 59. sun mamaye asibitoci a fadin duniya -
60. in Europe alone the number of new coma cases is estimated to be around 230,000 annually, 60. a Turai kawai yawan wadanda suke a some suna kaiwa kimanin 230,000 a kowace shekarta,
61. of which some 30,000 will languish in a persistent vegetative state. 61. inda daga cikinsu 30,00 ke kasancewa a yanayin langwabewa.
62. They are some of the most tragic 62. Irin wadanan su ne wadanda suka fi shiga matsanancin hali,
63. and expensive artefacts of modern intensive care. 63. inda ake tarairayarsu da na'urorin kula da lafiya na zamani masu tsada.
64. Owen knows this only too well. 64. Owen na da matukar fahimtar lamarin.
65. In 1997, a close friend set off on her usual cycle to work. 65. A shekarar 1997, wata kawarsa ta kud-da-kud ta ta shi yadda ta saba ta hau keke don zuwa wajen aiki.
66. Anne [[[name]] changed] had a weak spot on a blood vessel in her head, 66. Anne (wadda aka sauya sunanta) ta samu nakasu a magudanar jininta da ke kaiwa ga kokon kai,
67. known as a brain aneurysm. 67. wadda aka sani da raunannar jijiyar jinin kwakwalwa.
68. Five minutes into her trip, 68. Minti biyar da fara tafiyarta,
69. the aneurysm burst and she crashed into a tree. 69. sai langababbiyar jijiyar makwararar jininta ta fashe, inda nan take ta yi karo da wata bishiya.
70. She never regained consciousness. 70. Daga nan ba ta sake farfadowa ba.
71. The tragedy left Owen numb, 71. Wannan musifa ta sa Owen ya shiga zurfin tunani,
72. yet Annes accident would shape the rest of his life. 72. ta yarda hadarin Anne ya kawo masa sauyi tsawon rayuwarsa.
73. He began to wonder if there was a way to determine which of these patients were in an unconscious coma, which were conscious and which were somewhere in between? 73. Daga nan ya fara jefa alamar tambaya kan marasa lafiyar da ke cikin matsananciyar suma da wadanda sumarsu ba ta ta'azzara ba, da kuma wadanda suka samu kansu a tsakanin al'amuran biyu (matsanaciya da sassaukar suma)?
74. That year, 74. A wannan shekarar,
75. he had moved to the Medical Research Councils Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit in Cambridge, 75. sai ya koma Cibiyar binciken Likitanci da ke nazarin fannoni kimiyyar kwakwalwa a Cambridge,
76. where researchers used various scanning techniques. 76. inda masu bincike suka yi amfani da dabarun daukar hotuna daban-daban.
77. One, positron emission tomography (PET), 77. Daya daga cikin dabarun mai lakabin PET
78. highlights different metabolic processes in the brain, 78. na nuna yadda kwakwalwa ke gudanar da ayyuka,
79. such as oxygen and sugar use. 79. wadanda suka hada da amfani da iskar oxygen da sarrafa sukari.
80. Another, known as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), can reveal active centres in the brain by detecting the tiny surges in blood flow that take place as a mind whirrs. 80. Gudar dabarar kuwa mai lakabin fMRI na nuna sassan kwakwalwa da ke aiki ta hanyar gano dishi-dishin jini da ke kwarara da yawa.
81. Owen wondered whether he could use these technologies to reach out to patients, 81. Owen ya cika da tunanin yin amfani da wannan fasahar kere-kere ga majiyata,
82. like his friend, stuck between sensibility and oblivion. 82. irin kawarsa da ke halin rai kwakwai, mutu kwakwai.
83. Conscious decision 83. Kudurin farfadowa
84. Half a century ago, 84. Tsawon rabin karni da ya wuce,
85. if your heart stopped beating 85. idan zuciyarka ta daina bugawa
86. you could be pronounced dead even though you may have been entirely conscious as the doctor sent you to the morgue. 86. sai a tabbatar da mutuwarka ko da daukacin jikinka na farke sai kawai likitoci su turaka wajen adana gawa (macuware).
87. This, in all likelihood, 87. Wannan lamarin
88. could explain notorious accounts through history of those whocame back from the dead’. 88. shi ke nuni da cewa a tarihi an sha samun wadanda "suka mutu, suka farfado."
89. As recently as 2011, 89. Tamkar yadda ta faru a shekarar 2011,
90. a council in the Malatya province 90. inda a Majalisar Lardin Malatya
91. of central Turkey 91. da ke tsakiyar kasar Turkiyya
92. announced it had built a morgue with a warning system and refrigerator doors that could be opened from the inside. 92. ta ba da sanarwar kera macuware mai nakararwa da kofofin sanyaya gawa da ake iya bude su daga ciki.
93. The problem is that 93. Matsalar dai ita ce
94. the scientific definition ofdeathremains as unresolved as the definition ofconsciousness”. 94. har yanzu ma'anar da kimiyya ta bai wa "mutuwa" ba a cimma matsaya kanta ba, tamkar yadda "farkawa" take.
95. Being alive is no longer linked to having a beating heart, explains Owen. 95. Kasancewa a raye yanzu bas hi da alaka da bugun zuciya, kamar yadda Owen ya bayyana.
96. If I have an artificial heart, am I dead? 96. Idan ina da zuciyar dashe, shin na mutu ke nan?
97. If you are on a life-support machine, are you dead? 97. Idan na'urar na tarairayar rayuwarka, ana nufin ka mutu ke nan?
98. Is a failure to sustain independent life a reasonable definition of death? 98. Gazawar gudanar da harkokin rayuwa a kashin kai na nufin mutuwa ke nan?
99. No, otherwise we would all bedeadin the nine months before birth. 99. A'a, sabanin haka lamarin yake, domin da tuni daukacinmu mun "mutu" cikin watanni tara kafin a haife mu.
100. The issue becomes murkier 100. Lamarin na dada rincabewa
101. when we consider 101. idan muka yi la'akari da
102. those trapped in the twilight worlds between normal life and death 102. wadanda ke dabaibaye a tsakanin rayuwa da mutuwa -
103. from those who slip in and out of awareness, 103. tun daga kan wadanda suka san inda suke da ma wadanda ba su san inda kansu yake ba,
104. who are trapped in aminimally conscious state’, 104. wadanda ke dabaibaye a "tsukukun sumar farkawa,'
105. to those who are severely impaired in a vegetative state or a coma. 105. har zuwa kan wadanda jikinsu ke langabe ko doguwar suma.
106. These patients first appeared in the wake of the development of the artificial respirator during the 1950s in Denmark, 106. Wadannan majiyatan alamu na nuna a farke suke ta hanyar kakaba musu bututun shaker iska cikin shekarun 1950 a kasar Denmark,
107. an invention that redefined the end of life 107. wata kirkirar fasaha da ke nuni da karshen rayuwa
108. in terms of the idea of brain death 108. bisa la'akari da da mutuwar kwakwalwa,
109.  and created the specialty of intensive care, 109. ta hanyar samar da kyakkyawar kulawa,
110. in which unresponsive and comatose patients who seemed unable to wake up again were written off as 110. inda ake gane marasa lafiyar da suka ki tashi sai a kimanta su a matsayin
111. “vegetablesor 111. "langababbu" ko
112. “jellyfish”. 112. "taushin jiki (irin na kifi mai fila-filai - jelly fish)".
113. As is always the case when treating patients, 113. Kamar yadda aka saba duk sa'adda ake yi wa marasa lafiya magani,
114. definitions are critical: 114. yanke matsaya na da wahala:
115. understanding the chances of recovery, 115. wato fahimtar yiwuwar rayuwarsa, tattare da
116. the benefits of treatments and so on all depend on a precise diagnosis. 116. alfanun maganin da ake yi da sauran al'amuran da suka danganta kan hakikanin cutar da aka gano.
117. In the 1960s, 117. A shekarun 1960,
neurologist Fred Plum masanin sarrafa sakonnin kwakwalwa Fred Plum
118. in New York and 118. a New York da
119. neurosurgeon Bryan Jennett in Glasgow carried out pioneering work to understand and categorise disorders of consciousness. 119. mai tiyatar jijiyar laka Bryan Jennett a Glasgow su suka fara gudanar da bincike don gano yadda za a kimanta rukunin farfadowa farkawa.
120. Plum coined the termlocked-in syndrome”, 120. Plum ya kirkiro lakabin "matsalar dabaibayewa,"
121. in which a patient is aware and awake but cannot move or talk. 121. inda mara lafiya ya san inda kansa yake a farko, amma ba zai iya motsi ko Magana ba.
122. With Plum, Jennett devised 122. Tare da Plum, Jenett ya kirkiro
123. the Glasgow Coma Scale 123. ma'aunin sumar Glasgow (Glasgow Coma Scale)
124. to rate the depth of coma, 124. don kimanta yanayin suma,
125. and Jennett followed up with the Glasgow Outcome Scale 125. sai Jennett ya sake samar da wani ma'aunin sakamakon Glasgow
126. to weigh up the extent of recovery, 126. don kimanta yanayin farfadowa,
127. from death to mild disability. 127. wato daga mutuwa zuwa 'yar karamar nakasa.
128. Together they adopted the term 128. Gaba dayansu sai suka rika amfani da lakabin
129. “persistent vegetative state 129. “matsanancin langabewar jiki
130. for patients who, they wrote, 130. ga marasa lafiyar da suka rubuta
131. “have periods of wakefulness when their eyes are open and move; 131. "kimar lokacin farfadowarsu da zarar idanunsu sun bude suna motsi;
132. their responsiveness is limited to primitive postural and reflex movements of the limbs, and they never speak.” 132. tasirin warkewarsu an ta'allaka shi ga motsin gabobi ko karsashin gabar da aka taba, kuma ba sa taba yin magana."
133. In 2002, Jennett was among a group of neurologists who chose the phrase 133. A shekarar 2002, Jennett na cikin gungun masana aikin kwakwalwa da suka yi furucin
134. “minimally conscious 134. "farkawa kadan"
135. to describe those who are sometimes awake 135. don kwatanta wadanda a wani lokaci suke a farke
136. and partly aware, 136. tare da dan sanin inda kansu yake,
137. who show erratic signs of consciousness so that at one time they might be able to follow a simple instruction 137. da ke nuna alamun farkawa ta yarda a wani lokaci za su iya bin umarnin abin da aka ce su yi,
138. and another they might not. 138. wasu kuwa ba za su iya ba.
139. Even today, however, were still arguing over who is conscious and who isnt. 139. Har zuwa yau, ana ci gaba da taqaddama kan wane ne ya san inda kansa yake da kuma wanda bai sani ba.