Difference between revisions of "Talk:bbchausa verticals/078 Why doing a poo takes almost all animals roughly 12 seconds"

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# https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1x1HbEW3Brcr8vPyb7WmnIBr7vhS1KO-QEpEj2jILURQ/edit?usp=drive_web&ouid=105849031341375875521 https://docs.google.com/document/d/1B8Hx0QJfAIC2nyAQKzgZSMMLQhIzbCkcxNOfTlhsXbg/edit
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# [https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1x1HbEW3Brcr8vPyb7WmnIBr7vhS1KO-QEpEj2jILURQ/edit?usp=drive_web&ouid=105849031341375875521] [https://docs.google.com/document/d/1B8Hx0QJfAIC2nyAQKzgZSMMLQhIzbCkcxNOfTlhsXbg/edit] [http://hausadictionary.com/Talk:bbchausa_verticals/078_Why_doing_a_poo_takes_almost_all_animals_roughly_12_seconds] [https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1x1HbEW3Brcr8vPyb7WmnIBr7vhS1KO-QEpEj2jILURQ/edit?usp=drive_web&ouid=105849031341375875521] [https://docs.google.com/document/d/1B8Hx0QJfAIC2nyAQKzgZSMMLQhIzbCkcxNOfTlhsXbg/edit]
 
##''[[It]] [[takes]] [[dogs]], [[people]] [[and]] [[elephants]] [[about]] [[the]] [[same]] [[time]] [[to]] [[excrete]], [[despite]] [[the]] [[huge]] [[size]] [[difference]] <br> [[duk da|Duk da]] [[girman]] [[kashin]] [[giwa]], [[lokaci]] [[daya]] [[yake]] [[fita]] [[da]] [[na]] [[mutum]] [[da]] [[kuma]] [[na]] [[kare]]<br><br>''
 
##''[[It]] [[takes]] [[dogs]], [[people]] [[and]] [[elephants]] [[about]] [[the]] [[same]] [[time]] [[to]] [[excrete]], [[despite]] [[the]] [[huge]] [[size]] [[difference]] <br> [[duk da|Duk da]] [[girman]] [[kashin]] [[giwa]], [[lokaci]] [[daya]] [[yake]] [[fita]] [[da]] [[na]] [[mutum]] [[da]] [[kuma]] [[na]] [[kare]]<br><br>''
 
##''[[The]] [[ancient]] [[Chinese]] <br> [[mutanen|Mutanen]] [[kasar]] [[Sin]] ([[China]]) [[na]] [[zamanin]] [[da]]<br><br>''
 
##''[[The]] [[ancient]] [[Chinese]] <br> [[mutanen|Mutanen]] [[kasar]] [[Sin]] ([[China]]) [[na]] [[zamanin]] [[da]]<br><br>''
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##''[[It]] [[was]] [[something]] [[else]], <br> [[Wani]] [[abu]] [[ne]] [[na]] [[daban]],<br><br>''
 
##''[[It]] [[was]] [[something]] [[else]], <br> [[Wani]] [[abu]] [[ne]] [[na]] [[daban]],<br><br>''
 
##''[[much]] [[more]] [[sinister]]. <br> [[wanda]] [[ya]] [[ma]] [[fi]] [[matsala]].<br><br>''
 
##''[[much]] [[more]] [[sinister]]. <br> [[wanda]] [[ya]] [[ma]] [[fi]] [[matsala]].<br><br>''
 +
##''[[Years]] [[of]] [[nappy]] [[changes]] [[and]] [[then]] [[potty]] [[training]] [[turned]] [[me]] [[from]] [[a]] [[poo]]-[[analysis]] [[novice]] [[to]] [[a]] [[wizened]] [[connoisseur]]. <br> [[Tsawon]] [[lokaci]] [[na]] [[samu]] [[kaina]] [[a]] [[aikin]] [[nazarin]] [[yadda]] [[halittu]] [[ke]] [[zuba]] [[kashinsu]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[My]] [[life]] [[passes]] [[by]] [[in]] [[a]] [[series]] [[of]] [[images]]: [[hard]] [[faeces]] [[pellets]] [[like]] [[peas]] [[to]] [[long]] [[faeces]] [[like]] [[a]] [[smooth]] [[snake]] [[to]] [[a]] [[puddle]] [[of]] [[brown]] [[water]]. <br> [[inda]] [[na]] [[wasu]] [[ke]] [[kasancewa]] [[kamar]] [[kwallo]] [[ko]] [[kwayar]] [[wani]] [[abu]], [[wasu]] [[kuwa]] [[nasu]] [[yana]] [[zama]] [[kamar]] [[maciji]], [[ko]] [[kuma]] [[wani]] [[ruwan]] [[tabo]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[Unlike]] [[the]] [[ancients]], <br> [[Ba]] [[kamar]] [[mutanen]] [[da]] [[ba]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[we]] [[didn't]] [[believe]] [[that]] [[we]] [[could]] [[predict]] [[the]] [[future]] <br> [[a]] [[yau]] [[mu]] [[ba]] [[mu]] [[yarda]] [[cewa]] [[za]] [[a]] [[iya]] [[hasashen]] [[gobe]] [[ba]]<br><br>
 +
##''[[from]] [[children's]] [[stool]]. <br> [[daga]] [[yanayin]] [[kashin]] [[yara]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[But]] [[we]] [[did]] [[think]] [[it]] [[was]] [[worth]] [[trying]] [[to]] [[understand]] [[where]] [[all]] [[these]] [[shapes]] [[come]] [[from]]. <br> [[Amma]] [[kuma]] [[mun]] [[yarda]] [[cewa]] [[yana]] [[da]] [[kyau]] [[mu]] [[san]] [[dalilin]] [[da]] [[ya]] [[sa]] [[kowa]] [[ne]] [[kashi]] [[yake]] [[da]] [[siffarsa]] [[ta]] [[daban]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[Having]] [[a]] [[laboratory]] [[to]] [[answer]] [[questions]] [[about]] [[the]] [[everyday]] [[world]] [[is]] [[one]] [[of]] [[the]] [[distinct]] [[pleasures]] [[of]] [[being]] [[a]] [[scientist]]. <br> [[N]]/[[A]]<br><br>
 +
##''[[As]] [[fluid]] [[dynamicists]], <br> [[A]] [[matsayinmu]] [[na]] [[masu]] [[nazari]] [[kan]] [[kimiyyar]] [[abubuwan]] [[da]] [[ke]] [[da]] [[ruwa]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[we]] [[joined]] [[forces]] [[with]] [[colorectal]] [[surgeon]] [[Daniel]] [[Chu]], <br> [[mun]] [[hada]] [[hannu]] [[da]] [[kwararren]] [[likitan]] [[hanji]] [[Daniel]] [[Chu]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[and]] [[two]] [[stalwart]] [[undergraduates]], [[Candice]] [[Kaminski]] [[and]] [[Morgan]] [[LaMarca]], <br> [[da]] [[wasu]] [[dalibai]] [[biyu]] [[Kaminski]] [[da]] [[Morgan]] [[LaMarca]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[who]] [[filmed]] [[defaecation]] [[and]] [[hand]]-[[picked]] [[faeces]] [[from]] [[34]] [[mammalian]] [[species]] <br> [[wadanda]] [[suka]] [[dauki]] [[hoton]] [[bidiyo]] [[na]] [[lokacin]] [[da]] [[wasu]] [[dabbobi]] [[masu]] [[shayarwa]] [[34]] [[ke]] [[kashi]] [[da]] [[kuma]] [[tattara]] [[kashin]] [[nasu]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[at]] [[Zoo]] [[Atlanta]] <br> [[a]] [[gidan]] [[namun]] [[daji]] [[na]] [[Atlanta]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[in]] [[order]] [[to]] [[measure]] [[their]] [[density]] [[and]] [[viscosity]]. <br> [[domin]] [[su]] [[yi]] [[nazari]] [[a]] [[kai]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[66]]% [[of]] [[animals]] [[take]] [[between]] [[5]] [[and]] [[19]] [[seconds]] [[to]] [[defaecate]] <br> [[N]]/[[A]]<br><br>
 +
##''[[We]] [[learned]] [[that]] [[most]] [[elephants]] <br> [[Mun]] [[gano]] [[cewa]] [[yawancin]] [[giwaye]]<br><br>
 +
##''[[and]] [[other]] [[herbivores]] <br> [[da]] [[sauran]] [[dabbobi]] [[masu]] [[cin]] [[ciyawa]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[create]] "[[floaters]]" <br> [[kashinsu]] [[ruwa]]-[[ruwa]] [[ne]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[while]] [[most]] [[tigers]] <br> [[yayin]] [[da]] [[yawanci]] [[damisa]]<br><br>
 +
##''[[and]] [[other]] [[carnivores]] [[create]] "[[sinkers]]". <br> [[da]] [[dabbobin]] [[da]] [[ke]] [[cin]] [[nama]] [[suke]] [[kashi]] [[dunkulalle]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[Inadvertently]], [[we]] [[also]] [[ranked]] [[faeces]] [[from]] [[most]] [[to]] [[least]] [[smelly]], <br> [[Haka]] [[kuma]] [[mun]] [[yi]] [[nazarin]] [[bambancin]] [[warin]] [[kashin]] [[dabbobin]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[starting]] [[with]] [[tiger]] [[and]] [[rhino]] [[and]] [[going]] [[all]] [[the]] [[way]] [[to]] [[panda]]. <br> [[daga]] [[wanda]] [[ya]] [[fi]] [[wari]] [[zuwa]] [[wanda]] [[ba]] [[shi]] [[da]] [[wari]] [[sosai]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[The]] [[zoo's]] [[variety]] [[of]] [[animals]] <br> [[Tarin]] [[yawan]] [[dabbobin]] [[da]] [[ake]] [[da]] [[su]] [[a]] [[gidan]] [[namun]] [[dajin]]<br><br>
 +
##''[[provided]] [[us]] [[with]] [[a]] [[range]] [[of]] [[faecal]] [[sizes]] [[and]] [[shapes]] [[that]] [[served]] [[as]] [[independent]] [[pieces]] [[of]] [[evidence]] [[to]] [[validate]] [[our]] [[mathematical]] [[model]] [[of]] [[the]] [[duration]] [[of]] [[defaecation]]. <br> [[ya]] [[kuma]] [[ba]] [[mu]] [[damar]] [[iya]] [[nazari]] [[a]] [[kan]] [[mizanin]] [[da]] [[muka]] [[tsara]] [[na]] [[lokacin]] [[da]] [[dabba]] [[ke]] [[dauka]] [[tana]] [[kashi]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[We]] [[also]] [[placed]] [[the]] [[faeces]] [[in]] [[a]] [[device]] [[called]] [[a]] "[[rheometer]]", [[a]] [[precision]] [[blender]] <br> [[Sannan]] [[mun]] [[kuma]] [[sanya]] [[kashin]] [[a]] [[wata]] [[na'ura]] [[da]]<br><br>
 +
##''[[that]] [[can]] [[measure]] [[the]] [[properties]] [[of]] [[liquid]]-[[like]] [[and]] [[solid]]-[[like]] [[materials]] [[such]] [[as]] [[chocolate]] [[and]] [[shampoo]]. <br> [[za]] [[ta]] [[iya]] [[auna]] [[yawan]] [[sinadarai]] [[masu]] [[ruwa]] [[da]] [[ke]] [[cikinsa]] [[da]] [[kuma]] [[wadanda]] [[ba]] [[na]] [[ruwa]] [[ba]], [[wato]] [[na]] [[kwaya]]-[[kwaya]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[Our]] [[lab]] [[shares]] [[two]] [[rheometers]] [[with]] [[Georgia]] [[Tech]] [[physicist]] [[Alberto]] [[Fernandez]]-[[Nieves]]. [[We]] [[have]] [[since]] [[categorized]] [[the]] [[rheometers]] [[as]] [[the]] "[[clean]] [[rheometer]]" [[and]] [[the]] "[[David]] [[Hu]] [[rheometer]]" – [[which]] [[has]] [[seen]] [[its]] [[fair]] [[share]] [[of]] [[frog]] [[saliva]], [[mucus]] [[and]] [[faeces]]. <br> [[N]]/[[A]]<br><br>
 +
##''[[What]] [[else]] [[did]] [[we]] [[learn]]? <br> [[Abin]] [[da]] [[kuma]] [[muka]] [[fahimta]] [[a]] [[nan]] [[shi]] [[ne]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[Bigger]] [[animals]] [[have]] [[longer]] [[faeces]]. <br> [[manyan]] [[dabbobi]] [[suna]] [[kashi]] [[mai]] [[tsawo]]<br><br>
 +
##''[[And]] [[bigger]] [[animals]] [[also]] [[defaecate]] [[at]] [[higher]] [[speed]]. <br> [[kuma]] [[cikin]] [[sauri]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[For]] [[instance]], <br> [[Misali]]<br><br>
 +
##''[[an]] [[elephant]] [[defaecates]] [[at]] [[a]] [[speed]] [[of]] [[6cm]]/[[s]], <br> [[giwa]] [[tana]] [[kashin]] [[da]] [[tsawonsa]] [[ya]] [[kai]] [[na]] [[santimita]] ([[centimeter]]) [[shida]] [[a]] [[tsawon]] [[a]] [[cikin]] [[dakika]] [[daya]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[nearly]] [[six]] [[times]] [[as]] [[fast]] [[as]] [[a]] [[dog]]. <br> [[wato]] [[kusan]] [[saurin]] [[linki]] [[shida]] [[a]] [[kan]] [[yadda]] [[kare]] [[yake]] [[yin]] [[kashinsa]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[The]] [[speed]] [[of]] [[defaecation]] [[for]] [[humans]] [[is]] [[in]] [[between]]: [[2cm]]/[[s]]. <br> [[Shi]] [[kuwa]] [[mutun]] [[yana]] [[kashinsa]] [[ne]] [[a]] [[tsakanin]] [[santimita]] ([[centimetre]]) [[biyu]] [[a]] [[cikin]] [[dakika]] [[daya]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[Together]], [[this]] [[meant]] [[that]] <br> [[Gaba]] [[daya]] [[wannan]] [[na]] [[nuna]] [[cewa]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[defaecation]] [[duration]] [[is]] [[constant]] [[across]] [[many]] [[animal]] [[species]] – <br> [[tsawon]] [[lokacin]] [[da]] [[dabbobi]] [[ke]] [[dauka]] [[suna]] [[kashi]] [[kusan]] [[daya]] [[ne]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[around]] [[12]] [[seconds]] ([[plus]] [[or]] [[minus]] [[7]] [[seconds]]) – <br> [[wato]] [[kusan]] [[dakika]] [[12]] ([[da]] [[kari]] [[ko]] [[ragin]] [[dakika]] [[7]]),<br><br>
 +
##''[[even]] [[though]] [[the]] [[volume]] [[varies]] [[greatly]]. <br> [[duk]] [[da]] [[cewa]] [[yawan]] [[tarin]] [[kashin]] [[ya]] [[bambanta]] [[sosai]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[Assuming]] [[a]] [[bell]] [[curve]] [[distribution]], [[66]]% [[of]] [[animals]] [[take]] [[between]] [[5]] [[and]] [[19]] [[seconds]] [[to]] [[defaecate]]. <br> [[Kusan]] [[kashi]] [[66]] [[cikin]] [[dari]] [[na]] [[dabbobi]] [[suna]] [[daukar]] [[tsakanin]] [[dakika]] [[5]] [[zuwa]] [[9]] [[suna]] [[kashi]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[It's]] [[a]] [[surprisingly]] [[small]] [[range]], <br> [[Abin]] [[mamaki]] [[wannan]] [[tsakanin]] [[lokacin]] [[ya]] [[yi]] [[kankanta]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[given]] [[that]] [[elephant]] [[faeces]] [[have]] [[a]] [[volume]] [[of]] [[20]] [[litres]], <br> [[idan]] [[aka]] [[yi]] [[la'akari]] [[da]] [[cewa]] [[kashin]] [[giwa]] [[ya]] [[kai]] [[yawan]] [[lita]] [[20]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[nearly]] [[a]] [[thousand]] [[times]] [[more]] [[than]] [[a]] [[dog's]], [[at]] [[10ml]]. <br> [[kusan]] [[linki]] [[dubu]] [[na]] [[kare]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[How]] [[can]] [[big]] [[animals]] [[defaecate]] [[at]] [[such]] [[high]] [[speed]]? <br> [[To]] [[amma]] [[ta]] [[yaya]] [[irin]] [[wadannan]] [[manyan]] [[dabbobi]] [[za]] [[su]] [[iya]] [[kashi]] [[da]] [[sauri]] [[haka]]?<br><br>
 +
##''[[The]] [[answer]], [[we]] [[found]], [[was]] [[in]] [[the]] [[properties]] [[of]] [[an]] [[ultra]]-[[thin]] [[layer]] [[of]] [[mucus]] [[lining]] [[the]] [[walls]] [[of]] [[the]] [[large]] [[intestine]]. <br> [[Amsar]] [[da]] [[muka]] [[gano]] [[tana]] [[tattare]] [[ne]] [[a]] [[abubuwan]] [[da]] [[ke]] [[cikin]] [[wani]] [[ruwa]] [[mai]] [[yauki]] [[mai]] [[kamar]] [[majina]] [[da]] [[ke]] [[jikin]] [[bangon]] [[babban]] [[hanji]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[The]] [[mucus]] [[layer]] [[is]] [[as]] [[thin]] [[as]] [[human]] [[hair]], <br> [[Kaurin]] [[wannan]] [[ruwa]] [[ko]] [[majina]] [[kamar]] [[silin]] [[gashin]] [[mutum]] [[yake]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[so]] [[thin]] <br> [[siririntakar]] [[ta]] [[yi]] [[tsanani]]<br><br>
 +
##''[[that]] [[we]] [[could]] [[measure]] [[it]] [[only]] [[by]] [[weighing]] [[faeces]] [[as]] [[the]] [[mucus]] [[evaporated]]. <br> [[ta]] [[yadda]] [[sai]] [[dai]] [[mu]] [[iya]] [[auna]] [[shi]] [[ta]] [[hanyar]] [[auna]] [[kashin]] [[yayin]] [[da]] [[ruwan]] [[ke]] [[tashi]] [[a]] [[matsayin]] [[tiriri]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[Despite]] [[being]] [[thin]], <br> [[Duk]] [[da]] [[sirintakar]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[the]] [[mucus]] [[is]] [[very]] [[slippery]], <br> [[ruwan]] [[yana]] [[da]] [[santsi]] [[sosai]] [[matuka]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[more]] [[than]] [[100]] [[times]] [[less]] [[viscous]] [[than]] [[faeces]]. <br> [[Hakan]] [[ne]] [[ya]] [[sa]] [[kashi]] [[yake]] [[fita]] [[da]] [[sauri]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[During]] [[defaecation]], [[faeces]] [[moves]] [[like]] [[a]] [[solid]] [[plug]]. <br> [[N]]/[[A]]<br><br>
 +
##''[[Therefore]], <br> [[Saboda]] [[haka]]<br><br>
 +
##''[[in]] [[ideal]] [[conditions]], <br> [[idan]] [[komai]] [[lafiya]] [[yake]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[the]] [[combined]] [[length]] [[and]] [[diameter]] [[of]] [[faeces]] [[is]] [[simply]] [[determined]] [[by]] [[the]] [[shape]] [[of]] [[one's]] [[rectum]] [[and]] [[large]] [[intestine]]. <br> [[tsawo]] [[da]] [[kuma]] [[kaurin]] [[kashi]] [[yakan]] [[dogara]] [[ne]] [[ga]], [[yadda]] [[karamin]] [[hanji]] [[da]] [[kuma]] [[hanyar]] [[takashin]] [[mutum]] [[ko]] [[dabba]] [[suke]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[One]] [[of]] [[the]] [[big]] [[findings]] [[of]] [[our]] [[study]] [[was]] [[that]] [[faeces]] [[extend]] [[halfway]] [[up]] [[the]] [[length]] [[of]] [[the]] [[colon]] [[from]] [[the]] [[rectum]]. <br> [[N]]/[[A]]<br><br>
 +
##''[[Putting]] [[the]] [[length]] [[of]] [[faeces]] [[together]] [[with]] [[the]] [[properties]] [[of]] [[mucus]], [[we]] [[now]] [[have]] [[a]] [[cohesive]] [[physics]] [[story]] [[for]] [[how]] [[defaecation]] [[happens]]. <br> [[To]] [[idan]] [[muka]] [[hada]] [[tsawon]] [[kashi]] [[da]] [[kuma]] [[abubuwan]] [[da]] [[wannan]] [[ruwa]] [[mai]] [[santsi]] [[mai]] [[kamar]] [[majina]] [[ya]] [[kunsa]], [[daga]] [[nan]] [[muke]] [[iya]] [[gane]] [[yadda]] [[halitta]] [[ke]] [[kashi]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[Bigger]] [[animals]] [[have]] [[longer]] [[faeces]], <br> [[Manyan]] [[dabbobi]] [[suna]] [[da]] [[kashi]] [[mai]] [[tsawo]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[but]] [[also]] [[thicker]] [[mucus]], <br> [[da]] [[kuma]] [[majina]] [[ko]] [[wannan]] [[ruwa]] [[mai]] [[kauri]],<br><br>
 +
##''[[enabling]] [[them]] [[to]] [[achieve]] [[high]] [[speeds]] [[with]] [[the]] [[same]] [[pressure]]. <br> [[ta]] [[yadda]] [[za]] [[su]] [[iya]] [[fitar]] [[da]] [[kashin]] [[da]] [[karfi]] [[kuma]] [[cikin]] [[sauri]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[Without]] [[this]] [[mucus]] [[layer]], <br> [[Idan]] [[babu]] [[wannan]] [[ruwa]] [[mai]] [[yauki]]<br><br>
 +
##''[[defaecation]] [[might]] [[not]] [[be]] [[possible]]. <br> [[to]] [[da]] [[kashi]] [[ba]] [[zai]] [[iya]] [[yuwuwa]] [[ba]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[Alterations]] [[in]] [[mucus]] [[can]] [[contribute]] [[to]] [[several]] [[ailments]], [[including]] [[chronic]] [[constipation]] [[and]] [[even]] [[infections]] [[by]] [[bacteria]] [[such]] [[as]] [[C]]. [[difficile]] [[in]] [[the]] [[gastrointestinal]] [[tract]]. <br> [[Idan]] [[aka]] [[samu]] [[wani]] [[sauyi]] [[a]] [[wannan]] [[majina]] [[ko]] [[ruwa]] [[da]] [[ke]] [[jikin]] [[bangon]] [[babban]] [[hanji]], [[to]] [[za]] [[a]] [[iya]] [[samun]] [[matsaloli]] [[ko]] [[rashin]] [[lafiya]] [[da]] [[dama]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[Beyond]] [[simply]] [[following]] [[our]] [[scientific]] [[curiosity]], [[our]] [[measurements]] [[of]] [[faeces]] [[have]] [[also]] [[had]] [[some]] [[practical]] [[applications]]. <br> [[Bayan]] [[burinmu]] [[na]] [[sanin]] [[kwakwaf]] [[na]] [[kimiyya]], [[nazarinmu]] [[a]] [[kan]] [[yadda]] [[ake]] [[kashi]] [[yana]] [[da]] [[amfani]] [[a]] [[rayuwarmu]] [[ta]] [[yau]] [[da]] [[kullum]].<br><br>
 +
##''[[Our]] [[defaecation]] [[data]] [[helped]] [[us]] [[design]] [[an]] [[adult]] [[nappy]] [[for]] [[astronauts]]. [[Astronauts]] [[want]] [[to]] [[stay]] [[in]] [[space]] [[suits]] [[for]] [[seven]] [[days]], [[but]] [[are]] [[limited]] [[by]] [[their]] [[nappies]]. [[Taking]] [[advantage]] [[of]] [[the]] [[viscosity]] [[of]] [[faeces]], [[we]] [[designed]] [[a]] [[nappy]] [[that]] [[segregates]] [[the]] [[faeces]] [[away]] [[from]] [[direct]] [[contact]] [[with]] [[skin]]. [[It]] [[was]] [[a]] [[semifinalist]] [[in]] [[the]] [[NASA]] [[Space]] [[Poop]] [[Challenge]] [[earlier]] [[this]] [[year]]. [[It]] [[just]] [[shows]] [[that]] [[physics]] [[and]] [[mathematics]] [[can]] [[be]] [[used]] [[everywhere]], [[even]] [[in]] [[your]] [[toilet]] [[bowl]]. <br> [[Domin]] [[ta]] [[wadannan]] [[bayanai]] [[ne]] [[muka]] [[iya]] [[tsara]] [[kunzugu]] [[na]] [[manya]] [[wanda]] '[[yan]] [[sama]]-[[jannati]] [[ke]] [[amfani]] [[da]] [[shi]], [[domin]] [[su]] '[[yan]] [[sama]]-[[jannati]] [[suna]] [[son]] [[kasancewa]] [[sanye]] [[da]] [[kayan]] [[musamman]] [[irin]] [[na]] [[tafiya]] [[zuwa]] [[sararin]] [[samaniya]] [[amma]] [[kuma]] [[kunzugun]] [[da]] [[za]] [[su]] [[yi]] [[amfani]] [[da]] [[shi]] [[a]] [[kayan]] [[na]] [[kawo]] [[musu]] [[cikas]] [[kan]] [[hakan]].[[To]] [[ta]] [[hanyar]] [[wannan]] [[nazari]] [[ne]], [[inda]] [[muka]] [[yi]] [[amfani]] [[da]] [[sanin]] [[kaurin]] [[ruwan]] [[da]] [[ke]] [[cikin]] [[kashi]], [[muka]] [[tsara]] [[kunzugun]] [[da]] [[yake]] [[hana]] [[kashi]] [[taba]] [[fatar]] [[mutum]]. [[Wannan]] [[kunzugu]] [[na]] [[musamman]] [[da]] [[muka]] [[yi]] [[ya]] [[zo]] [[matakin]] [[kusa]] [[da]] [[karshe]] [[na]] [[gasar]] [[hukumar]] [[kula]] [[da]] [[sararin]] [[samaniya]] [[ta]] [[Amurka]], [[NASA]], [[wadda]] [[aka]] [[yi]] [[a]] [[farkon]] [[shekaran]] [[nan]].<br><br>

Latest revision as of 09:34, 12 June 2019

  1. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]
    1. It takes dogs, people and elephants about the same time to excrete, despite the huge size difference
      Duk da girman kashin giwa, lokaci daya yake fita da na mutum da kuma na kare

    2. The ancient Chinese
      Mutanen kasar Sin (China) na zamanin da

    3. practiced copromancy, the diagnosis of health based on the shape, size and texture of faeces.
      suna amfani da tsarin gano rashin lafiyar da ke damun mutum ta hanyar nazarin yadda kashinsa yake, kamar girma da siffa da kuma yanayin tauri ko laushin kashin.

    4. So did the Egyptians,
      Haka su ma mutanen Misra

    5. the Greeks
      da Girkawa

    6. and nearly every ancient culture.
      da kusan duk al'ummomin zamanin da suna amfani da irin wannan tsari wajen gane irin larurar da ke damun maras lafiya.

    7. Even today,
      Hatta a zamanin yau,

    8. your doctor may ask
      likitanka zai iya tambayarka,

    9. when you last had a bowel movement
      lokaci na karshe da kaje bandaki,

    10. and to describe it in exquisite detail.
      da kuma yadda ka yi kashin da yadda launi ko kamanninsa yake, ka yi masa bayani dalla-dalla.

    11. Sure,
      Ba shakka

    12. it's uncomfortable to talk about.
      wannan ba abu ne da kowa zai iya sakin jiki ya yi magana a kansa ba,

    13. But that's where science comes in,
      to amma a nan ne maganar kimiyya ta shigo ciki,

    14. because what we don't like to discuss can still cause harm.
      domin abin da ba ma son mu yi magana a kai shi ne zai iya cutar da mu,

    15. Irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, gastrointestinal infections and other poop-related ailments cost Americans billions of dollars annually.
      kamar yadda bincike ya nuna cewa cutukan da suka shafi kashi, kamar su gudawa da sauransu na jawowa Amurkawa asarar dimbin kudade a duk shekara.

    16. But trying to stem these problems was not our main motivation
      Sai dai a nan ba wai yadda za a shawo kan irin wadannan matsaloli ba ne babban abin da muka sa a gaba ba,

    17. for trying to figure out some of the physics of defaecation.
      game da yadda ake yin kashi ba.

    18. It was something else,
      Wani abu ne na daban,

    19. much more sinister.
      wanda ya ma fi matsala.

    20. Years of nappy changes and then potty training turned me from a poo-analysis novice to a wizened connoisseur.
      Tsawon lokaci na samu kaina a aikin nazarin yadda halittu ke zuba kashinsu,

    21. My life passes by in a series of images: hard faeces pellets like peas to long faeces like a smooth snake to a puddle of brown water.
      inda na wasu ke kasancewa kamar kwallo ko kwayar wani abu, wasu kuwa nasu yana zama kamar maciji, ko kuma wani ruwan tabo.

    22. Unlike the ancients,
      Ba kamar mutanen da ba,

    23. we didn't believe that we could predict the future
      a yau mu ba mu yarda cewa za a iya hasashen gobe ba

    24. from children's stool.
      daga yanayin kashin yara.

    25. But we did think it was worth trying to understand where all these shapes come from.
      Amma kuma mun yarda cewa yana da kyau mu san dalilin da ya sa kowa ne kashi yake da siffarsa ta daban.

    26. Having a laboratory to answer questions about the everyday world is one of the distinct pleasures of being a scientist.
      N/A

    27. As fluid dynamicists,
      A matsayinmu na masu nazari kan kimiyyar abubuwan da ke da ruwa,

    28. we joined forces with colorectal surgeon Daniel Chu,
      mun hada hannu da kwararren likitan hanji Daniel Chu,

    29. and two stalwart undergraduates, Candice Kaminski and Morgan LaMarca,
      da wasu dalibai biyu Kaminski da Morgan LaMarca,

    30. who filmed defaecation and hand-picked faeces from 34 mammalian species
      wadanda suka dauki hoton bidiyo na lokacin da wasu dabbobi masu shayarwa 34 ke kashi da kuma tattara kashin nasu,

    31. at Zoo Atlanta
      a gidan namun daji na Atlanta,

    32. in order to measure their density and viscosity.
      domin su yi nazari a kai.

    33. 66% of animals take between 5 and 19 seconds to defaecate
      N/A

    34. We learned that most elephants
      Mun gano cewa yawancin giwaye

    35. and other herbivores
      da sauran dabbobi masu cin ciyawa,

    36. create "floaters"
      kashinsu ruwa-ruwa ne,

    37. while most tigers
      yayin da yawanci damisa

    38. and other carnivores create "sinkers".
      da dabbobin da ke cin nama suke kashi dunkulalle.

    39. Inadvertently, we also ranked faeces from most to least smelly,
      Haka kuma mun yi nazarin bambancin warin kashin dabbobin,

    40. starting with tiger and rhino and going all the way to panda.
      daga wanda ya fi wari zuwa wanda ba shi da wari sosai.

    41. The zoo's variety of animals
      Tarin yawan dabbobin da ake da su a gidan namun dajin

    42. provided us with a range of faecal sizes and shapes that served as independent pieces of evidence to validate our mathematical model of the duration of defaecation.
      ya kuma ba mu damar iya nazari a kan mizanin da muka tsara na lokacin da dabba ke dauka tana kashi.

    43. We also placed the faeces in a device called a "rheometer", a precision blender
      Sannan mun kuma sanya kashin a wata na'ura da

    44. that can measure the properties of liquid-like and solid-like materials such as chocolate and shampoo.
      za ta iya auna yawan sinadarai masu ruwa da ke cikinsa da kuma wadanda ba na ruwa ba, wato na kwaya-kwaya.

    45. Our lab shares two rheometers with Georgia Tech physicist Alberto Fernandez-Nieves. We have since categorized the rheometers as the "clean rheometer" and the "David Hu rheometer" – which has seen its fair share of frog saliva, mucus and faeces.
      N/A

    46. What else did we learn?
      Abin da kuma muka fahimta a nan shi ne,

    47. Bigger animals have longer faeces.
      manyan dabbobi suna kashi mai tsawo

    48. And bigger animals also defaecate at higher speed.
      kuma cikin sauri.

    49. For instance,
      Misali

    50. an elephant defaecates at a speed of 6cm/s,
      giwa tana kashin da tsawonsa ya kai na santimita (centimeter) shida a tsawon a cikin dakika daya,

    51. nearly six times as fast as a dog.
      wato kusan saurin linki shida a kan yadda kare yake yin kashinsa.

    52. The speed of defaecation for humans is in between: 2cm/s.
      Shi kuwa mutun yana kashinsa ne a tsakanin santimita (centimetre) biyu a cikin dakika daya.

    53. Together, this meant that
      Gaba daya wannan na nuna cewa,

    54. defaecation duration is constant across many animal species
      tsawon lokacin da dabbobi ke dauka suna kashi kusan daya ne,

    55. around 12 seconds (plus or minus 7 seconds) –
      wato kusan dakika 12 (da kari ko ragin dakika 7),

    56. even though the volume varies greatly.
      duk da cewa yawan tarin kashin ya bambanta sosai.

    57. Assuming a bell curve distribution, 66% of animals take between 5 and 19 seconds to defaecate.
      Kusan kashi 66 cikin dari na dabbobi suna daukar tsakanin dakika 5 zuwa 9 suna kashi.

    58. It's a surprisingly small range,
      Abin mamaki wannan tsakanin lokacin ya yi kankanta,

    59. given that elephant faeces have a volume of 20 litres,
      idan aka yi la'akari da cewa kashin giwa ya kai yawan lita 20,

    60. nearly a thousand times more than a dog's, at 10ml.
      kusan linki dubu na kare.

    61. How can big animals defaecate at such high speed?
      To amma ta yaya irin wadannan manyan dabbobi za su iya kashi da sauri haka?

    62. The answer, we found, was in the properties of an ultra-thin layer of mucus lining the walls of the large intestine.
      Amsar da muka gano tana tattare ne a abubuwan da ke cikin wani ruwa mai yauki mai kamar majina da ke jikin bangon babban hanji.

    63. The mucus layer is as thin as human hair,
      Kaurin wannan ruwa ko majina kamar silin gashin mutum yake,

    64. so thin
      siririntakar ta yi tsanani

    65. that we could measure it only by weighing faeces as the mucus evaporated.
      ta yadda sai dai mu iya auna shi ta hanyar auna kashin yayin da ruwan ke tashi a matsayin tiriri.

    66. Despite being thin,
      Duk da sirintakar,

    67. the mucus is very slippery,
      ruwan yana da santsi sosai matuka.

    68. more than 100 times less viscous than faeces.
      Hakan ne ya sa kashi yake fita da sauri.

    69. During defaecation, faeces moves like a solid plug.
      N/A

    70. Therefore,
      Saboda haka

    71. in ideal conditions,
      idan komai lafiya yake,

    72. the combined length and diameter of faeces is simply determined by the shape of one's rectum and large intestine.
      tsawo da kuma kaurin kashi yakan dogara ne ga, yadda karamin hanji da kuma hanyar takashin mutum ko dabba suke.

    73. One of the big findings of our study was that faeces extend halfway up the length of the colon from the rectum.
      N/A

    74. Putting the length of faeces together with the properties of mucus, we now have a cohesive physics story for how defaecation happens.
      To idan muka hada tsawon kashi da kuma abubuwan da wannan ruwa mai santsi mai kamar majina ya kunsa, daga nan muke iya gane yadda halitta ke kashi.

    75. Bigger animals have longer faeces,
      Manyan dabbobi suna da kashi mai tsawo,

    76. but also thicker mucus,
      da kuma majina ko wannan ruwa mai kauri,

    77. enabling them to achieve high speeds with the same pressure.
      ta yadda za su iya fitar da kashin da karfi kuma cikin sauri.

    78. Without this mucus layer,
      Idan babu wannan ruwa mai yauki

    79. defaecation might not be possible.
      to da kashi ba zai iya yuwuwa ba.

    80. Alterations in mucus can contribute to several ailments, including chronic constipation and even infections by bacteria such as C. difficile in the gastrointestinal tract.
      Idan aka samu wani sauyi a wannan majina ko ruwa da ke jikin bangon babban hanji, to za a iya samun matsaloli ko rashin lafiya da dama.

    81. Beyond simply following our scientific curiosity, our measurements of faeces have also had some practical applications.
      Bayan burinmu na sanin kwakwaf na kimiyya, nazarinmu a kan yadda ake kashi yana da amfani a rayuwarmu ta yau da kullum.

    82. Our defaecation data helped us design an adult nappy for astronauts. Astronauts want to stay in space suits for seven days, but are limited by their nappies. Taking advantage of the viscosity of faeces, we designed a nappy that segregates the faeces away from direct contact with skin. It was a semifinalist in the NASA Space Poop Challenge earlier this year. It just shows that physics and mathematics can be used everywhere, even in your toilet bowl.
      Domin ta wadannan bayanai ne muka iya tsara kunzugu na manya wanda 'yan sama-jannati ke amfani da shi, domin su 'yan sama-jannati suna son kasancewa sanye da kayan musamman irin na tafiya zuwa sararin samaniya amma kuma kunzugun da za su yi amfani da shi a kayan na kawo musu cikas kan hakan.To ta hanyar wannan nazari ne, inda muka yi amfani da sanin kaurin ruwan da ke cikin kashi, muka tsara kunzugun da yake hana kashi taba fatar mutum. Wannan kunzugu na musamman da muka yi ya zo matakin kusa da karshe na gasar hukumar kula da sararin samaniya ta Amurka, NASA, wadda aka yi a farkon shekaran nan.